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Thursday, January 15, 2009

The First & Second Battles of Cedar Springs, Battle of Wofford Iron Works

Wofford Iron Works

The iron works were erected on Lawson's Fork Creek in Glendale, Spartanburg, SC in 1773 by Joseph Buffington, iron master, who came from Lincolnton, NC. He was looking for a place rich in iron ore and limestone. He also needed good forests surrounding it to be used for charcoal. And, lastly, he needed a source of water power. He found it. It was in Carolina. The first iron works in SC were erected outside of Spartanburg. Buffington had ready customers...the inhabitants were glad to be able to buy pots and pans and farm implements at home, and equally glad to find a cash market for their wood. Almost every farmer had a pit for burning charcoal to sell at the iron works. They dug iron ore from the surface (vs pits, shafts or mines). Buffington built a 4 sided structure of rock as his furnace. It was lined with quartz heat resistant rock and had sliding doors on the sides and bottom. He built it next to a hill so that the raw material could be carted up the hill and dumped into the top of the furnace. Iron was drawn from the bottom.

Men carefully burned wood to create charcoal. They created a fire with charcoal in the bottom of the furnace. Then they layered crushed limestone on top and then put iron ore on top of that. They continued these layers until the furnace was full. A bellows operated by water power was positioned at the bottom to blow air on the fires to make them hotter. Men would watch the furnace and knew when to slide open the doors on the side to allow slag (the waste) to pour out. They placed sand at the bottom door and dug into it to form a main trough with smaller troughs. When the charcoal had burned out, they slid open the bottom door to let the red hot, molten iron flow out onto the sand and into the troughs. As it lay cooling, it would look like a mother pig with her piglets nursing and is how we came up with the term "pig iron".

The lands Buffington bought and leased for his plant lay in the region claimed by North and South Carolina before the running of the boundary line in 1772, and he had trouble with his titles, for William Wofford had established his claim to the iron works tract on the basis of North Carolina grants. Once the Carolinas were divided into North and South Carolina, Buffington's land grant was called into question and William Wofford ended up with the iron works in Spartanburg. This Wm. Wofford was a relative to the founder of Wofford College in nearby Spartanburg, SC.

In 1776 Buffington borrowed more than 6,000 pounds from the State to complete his plant. William Henry Drayton and many local patriots of influence endorsed his request for this loan, because they knew that iron goods were necessary to the conduct of war and the Revolutionary War was starting! It is noteworthy that, at this and other iron works built later in Spartan District, weapons and ammunition were manufactured for use in the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the War Between the States. In 1778 William Wofford sold a three-fourths interest in the iron works built by Buffington to Simon and John Berwick and Charles Elliott of Charles Town, and for a brief time the name "Berwick's Iron Works" was used.
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Traditions and Reminiscences, Chiefly of the American Revolution in the South Including Biographical Sketches, Incidents, and Anecdotes, Few of which Have Been Published, Particularly of Residents in the Upper Country By Joseph Johnson

The record of when the works were rebuilt and how Buffington regained control of the plant has not been found, but in 1785 an act of the legislature ordered the sale of Buffington's Iron Works, to satisfy unpaid debt on them. Possibly at this sale William Poole acquired the works, for there can be little doubt that this same site (which is today Glendale) was that of Poole's Iron Works. The iron industry continued on at Glendale even after the coming of the textile mill. It did not end until after the Civil War. A large cupola furnace at Glendale was used during the War to make bowie knives, swords, shot, shells, tools and all sorts of special equipment. The iron industry plants in the Upcountry were also involved in making supplies for the Confederate war effort during the War of Northern Aggression. At the end of the Civil War, Wofford's Iron Works closed. There was less wood available for charcoal, machinery was worn out and a lower demand for the product were the catalysts to shutting down.

Spartanburg was known as the Old Iron District because there were several iron works in the area after the Revolutioanry War. In the 1830's Mr. Bivings built a cotton mill, the first one in the upstate, on Lawson's Fork Creek near the Wofford Iron Works. He called his mill the Glendale Cotton Mill and built a nice house overlooking the mill. The company created a mill village around the mill named Bivingsville. It was later changed to Glendale. The old textile mill was closed and has burned down. The only thing left of the mill is the original office, the towers and chimney, the iron bridge, and the company store (which is now the Glendale post office). The mill village of Glendale still exists, as do the churches.

Revolutionary War-era terms to know

Whigs and Tories - the two British political parties during the 17th to 19th centuries. Whigs believed in Constitutional Monarchy and were opposed to absolute rule. Tories supported the Monarchy and the Church of England.

Loyalists - Before the Revolutionary War, Americans considered themselves British colonists and followed British law. Many didn't want to rebel against the English King George. American colonists who remained loyal to the British crown during the Revolutionary War were called Loyalists, Royalists, King's Men, even Tories, and Provincials

Patriots - Those who were tired of being under the tyranny of a monarch and believed in breaking away from England and forming a new country were called Rebels, Whigs, Patriot's, Congress Men, Americans.

In 1775, the Spartan Regiment was possibly formed at the Glendale location.

The Battle of the Old Iron Works (aka the Second Battle of Cedar Springs, Battle of Wofford Iron Works, Battle of Buffington, Battle of the Berwick Iron Works, Battle of the Peach Orchard) was fought in August, 1780. The dates differ depending on which historian tells the tale (anywhere from 8/1-8/10/1780). In fact, all the facts such as numbers involved, casualty numbers, prisoner numbers, etc. are at issue with different sources.

Timeline around the time of the Battle of the Old Iron Works
Jul 1780 Brandon's Camp in Union County
Jul 1780 Stallions in York County
Jul 13, 1780 First Battle of Cedar Springs in Spartanburg County
Jul 13-14, 1780 Gowen's Old Fort in Spartanburg County
Jul 16, 1780 McDowell's Camp in Spartanburg County
Jul 20, 1780 Flat Rock in Kershaw County
Jul 30, 1780 Thicketty Fort in Spartanburg County
Aug 1, 1780 Hunt's Bluff in Darlington County - Marlboro County line
Aug 1, 1780 Rocky Mount in Lancaster County - now Fairfield County
Aug 1, 1780 Hanging Rock - 1st battle in Lancaster County
Aug 6, 1780 Hanging Rock - 2nd battle in Lancaster County
Aug 8, 1780 Battle of the Old Iron Work's - The Second Battle of Cedar Springs in Spartanburg County
Aug 15, 1780 Port's Ferry in Williamsburg County
Aug 15, 1780 Wateree in Richland County
Aug 16, 1780 Camden in Kershaw County
Aug 18, 1780 Fishing Creek in Chester County
Aug 18 or 19, 1780 Musgrove's Mills in Laurens County (see my post on the Battle of Musgrove Mills)
Aug 20, 1780 Nelson's Ferry in Clarendon County
Aug 27, 1780 King's Tree in Williamsburg County
Sep 14, 1780 Black Mingo in Williamsburg County
Sep 1780 Tarcote in Williamsburg County
Oct 7, 1780 King's Mountain in York County (see my post on the Battle of King's Mountain)
Nov 9, 1780 Fishdam in Chester County - Union County line
Nov 20, 1780 Blackstock in Union County
Dec 4, 1780 Rugeley's Mills in Kershaw County
Dec 11, 1780 Long Cane in Abbeville County
Dec 30, 1780 Hammond's Store in Abbeville County
Dec 31, 1780 Williams' Plantation in Newberry County
Jan 16, 1781 Cowpens in Spartanburg County - now Cherokee County (see my post on the Battle of Cowpens)

Following the fall of Charleston on May 12, 1780, the British had moved inland and one of the main leaders in pacifying rebellious elements of the Upcountry was Maj. Patrick Ferguson. Later in the year he would die at King's Mountain. But during the most part of 1780, Ferguson was a terror to the Whigs! He had begun coming into the interior of SC up the west side. He met with, organized and trained Loyalists along the way.

First Battle of Cedar Springs, Spartanburg, SC

Major Ferguson was in southern Union County, camped on Padgett's Creek, a tributary to the Tyger River at the plantation of Captain Jonathan Frost.

Col. John Thomas, Sr. had been living in the Fairforest area of Spartanburg before the War. He had been one of the founders of the church and a militia captain and magistrate under the British. But he had resigned his commission and became a Colonel in the new American army. After the fall of Charlestown, he and 2 of his sons had been jailed in Ninety Six for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the King. He and his wife had 4 sons and 4 daughters. His sons fought and all his daughters' husbands fought as Patriots.

Col. John Thomas, Jr. took command of his father's regiment. On July 13 , 1780 Col. John Thomas, Jr., in command of the Spartan regiment of the South Carolina Patriot militia, was camped at Cedar Springs. Mrs. Thomas (Jane Black Thomas) visited her husband and sons at Ninety Six and overheard some of the women talking about the plan for a Tory attack on the camp at Cedar Springs. Realizing her other two sons were in danger, as well as, many of their friends, she left early the next morning and rode 60 miles and all day to warn them. She made it to their camp in time and Col. John Thomas, Jr. was warned by his mother of the Loyalists' plan to attack his camp. When the attack began at Cedar Springs, the Loyalists ran into a prepared ambush and were beaten back by the militia. The Americans stoked up their camp fires and hid around the outside of the camp. The Loyalists thought they would be ambushing sleeping Rebels but they were greeted with a volley from ready rifles. The Loyalists quickly retreated back to friendly territory. They attacked at night which led to their confusion for the Loyalists had superior numbers but didn't know it.

July 20, 1780, Dr. Lyman Draper relates this story of the capture of Captain Patrick Moore, a noted Loyalist. Moore had escaped from the slaughter at Ramsour's Mill on the 20th of June, when his brother, Colonel John Moore, safely returned to Camden. Anxious for the capture of Captain Moore, Major Joseph Dickson and Captain William Johnson were sent out early in July to apprehend this noted Tory leader, and others if they could be found. On Lawson's Fork of Pacolet River, near the old Iron Works, once known as Bivingsville, and now known as Glendale, the parties met and a skirmish ensued, in which Captain Johnson and the Tory leader had a personal rencontre. Moore was at length overpowered and captured, but in the desperate contest Johnson received several wounds on his head and on the thumb of his right hand. While bearing his prisoner toward the Whig lines a short distance away, he was rapidly approached by several British troops. Attempting to fire his loaded musket at his pursuers, it unfortunately missed in consequence of the blood flowing from his wounded thumb and wetting his priming. This misfortune oh his part enabled his prisoner to escape, and, perceiving his own dangerous and defenceless condition, he promptly availed himself of a friendly thicket at his side, eluded his pursuers, and shortly after joined the command.

The Second Battle of Cedar Springs or The Battle of Wofford Iron Works
The battle at the Cedar Spring taken from the Magnolia Magazine of 1842:
"Col. Clarke of Georgia, well known in the American Revolution as a bold, active and useful officer, was on his march into North Carolina with a regiment of refugee Whigs for the purpose of joining the American Army then expected from the north. The news of his march reached the ears of Col. Ferguson, who immediately despatched Major Dunlop of the British Army with a detachment of troops consisting principally of Tories for the purpose of intercepting Col. Clarke and his regiment of militia. The colonel, not expecting an attack from the enemy, had encamped for the night two or three miles from the Cedar Spring, when he was alarmed by the firing of a gun by one of Major Dunlop's soldiers. It is said that this soldier, whose name is not at present remembered, was a Tory who felt some compunctious visitings at the idea of surprising and capturing his countrymen and took this opportunity of giving them information of an approaching enemy. He pretended, however, that his gun went off accidently, and he was not suspected of treachery. Col. Clarke immediately decamped and marched to the Cedar Spring, where he passed the night undisturbed. Mr. Dunlop, not thinking it prudent to pursue the Americans in the night, took possession of Col. Clarke's encampment and waited for the day.

"Josiah Culbertson, noted in Spartanburg for his desperate and daring courage, had left the American camp that evening for the purpose of returning home, two or three miles distant, to spend the night. He came back about daylight, expecting, of course, to find Col. Clarke and his regiment. But as he rode into the camp he observed that the army seemed to present a different appearance from what it did the evening before, but nevertheless rode on to where he expected to find Col. Clarke before he became conscious that he was in the midst of an enemy's camp. With extraordinary coolness and presence of mind, he then leisurely turned around and rode very slowly out of the encampment with his trusty rifle lying on the pommel of his saddle. As he passed along he saw the dragoons catching their horses, and other preparations being made to strike up the line of march.

"When out of sight of the British he put spurs to his horse and went in the direction he supposed Clarke had gone. While in the enemy's camp he had doubtless been taken for a Tory who was a little ahead of the others in his preparations for marching. He overtook Col. Clarke and found him in readiness for the attack of Major Dunlop. In a short time, too, that officer made his appearance and a warm engagement ensued. The British and Tories were repulsed with considerable loss. The Americans sustained very little injury. Major Dunlop hastily fled the country and Col. Clarke resumed his march toward North Carolina. During this engagement Culbertson was met by a dragoon some distance from the main battle who imperiously demanded his surrender, which Culbertson replied to with his rifle and felled the dragoon from his horse.

"The next day when the dead were buried this dragoon was thrown into a hole near where he lay and was covered with earth. He had some peaches in his pocket when buried, from which a peach tree came up and was known to bear peaches for years afterward. His grave is yet to be seen, but the tree has long since disappeared."

August, 1780
Ferguson had about 1,800 men. Opposing him was a Patriot force of 1,000 or so. Patriot Col. Charles McDowell, from Burke County, NC, was camped at Cherokee Ford (this was a place where the Savannah River could be forded with Elberton, Elbert County, GA on the GA side and Anderson and Abbeville Counties on the SC side) and he was responsible for trying to keep watch on the British major without letting themselves become engaged in a major battle. To accomplish its mission, 400 men were left to consolidate a base camp and the remainder, a mounted force of some 600 under Cols. Isaac Shelby, Elijah Clarke and William Graham, was sent into nearby Union County to shadow Ferguson and, when possible, cut off his foraging parties.

About four miles from the present site of Spartanburg Court House on the road to Union (now know as Union St.) is an old plantation known as Thompson's Old Place. It is an elevated tract of country lying between the tributaries of Fairforest on the one side and of Lawson's Fork on the other. Cedar Spring was about a mile distant on the Fairforest side, and Shelby's position not much further on the other. A road leading from North Carolina to Georgia (the Old Georgia Rd) by way of the Cherokee Ford on Broad River passed through this place and then by or near Cedar Spring. A person passing at the present time from the direction of Union toward Spartanburg Court House crosses this ancient highway at Thompson's old residence. After passing this, by looking to the left, the eye rests upon a parcel of land extending down a hollow, which was cleared and planted in fruit trees prior to the Revolutionary War. Beyond this hollow, just where the road entered a body of woodlands, was a peach orchard.

The Whig force had found themselves badly outnumbered by Ferguson and his men and had fallen back to the Spartanburg area, where they encamped for the night about two miles west of Cedar Spring to an area near Wofford's Iron Works a few miles north, on Lawson's Fork Creek, a tributary to the nearby Pacolet River. This was near the crossroads where Foster's Tavern (at Highways 56 and 295) would be erected in 1807 (and is still there today). Scouts brought word shortly before dawn that the enemy was within half a mile and the Patriots hastily broke camp and moved via the existing road from Camp Croft to Glendale to an advantageous position near the old Iron Works.

On the morning of the 8th, Ferguson's advance guard of 114 dragoons and mounted loyalists under Maj. James Dunlop were picking peaches in the orchard. They were attacked, and beaten back with some loss. Major James Dunlap managed to rally them and, putting himself at the head of the dragoons, initiated a second assault. The dragoons charged into the Patriot line, and the fighting was hand-to-hand. The British riflemen were reluctant to close and before long the badly outnumbered dragoons were thrown back and, together with the riflemen, were pursued for about a mile back along the present road to what is now Camp Croft (Camp Croft was a WWII training base) from Glendale by the victorious Americans before action was broken off and the Patriots returned to their line near the iron works. Dunlap continued his retreat another mile towards the direction of Camp Croft and met Ferguson with the entire Loyalist force. Ferguson and several hundred of his troops had been heading towards the Iron Works. The combined units now moved back towards the Iron Works, where the Americans took one look at the British, decided they were too badly outnumbered to fight, and began a hasty, but organized, withdrawal. The Americans retreated across Lawson's Fork Creek and along much of what is now the Clifton Glendale Road. At the time this route was part of the Old Georgia Road. There was a running battle to the site of present day Clifton. Ferguson was hoping to attack and rescue the British prisoners, but the American leaders took advantage of every favorable position to form their men for battle. This delayed close pursuit until the prisoners could be hurried beyond hope of recapture. Ferguson broke off the battle after the Americans crossed the Pacolet River at what is now Clifton. Ferguson had pursued them some four or five miles but after the backcountry men had posted themselves on some high ground, he called off his attack.

Much of the battle was a form of running engagement, and some versions speak of two separate but closely related skirmishes going on simultaneously. The number of men involved and of casualties in the battle is not clear, there being different versions of each coming from both sides. However, it would seem on the surface fair to say that Dunlop and Ferguson outnumbered Shelby, Clark and Graham, and the losses for both sides were about the same except that the Americans took more prisoners. It is not stated that Ferguson even took any. As with a number of facts about the battle, the given number of casualties differ.

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Colonial and Revolutionary History of Upper South Carolina Embracing for the Most Part the Primitive and Colonial History of the Territory Comprising the Original County of Spartanburg with a General Review of the Entire Military Operations in the Upper Portion of South Carolina and Portions of North Carolina By John Belton O'Neall Landrum

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Colonial and Revolutionary History of Upper South Carolina Embracing for the Most Part the Primitive and Colonial History of the Territory Comprising the Original County of Spartanburg with a General Review of the Entire Military Operations in the Upper Portion of South Carolina and Portions of North Carolina By John Belton O'Neall Landrum

Lt. Anthony Allaire: “Tuesday, 8th. Learning that the Rebel wagons were three miles in front of us at Cedar Spring, Captain Dunlap, with fourteen mounted men, and a hundred and thirty militia, were dispatched to take the wagons. He met three Rebels coming to reconnoitre our camp; he pursued, took two of them-the other escaped, giving the Rebels the alarm. In pursuit of this man, Dunlap and his party rushed into the centre of the Rebel camp, where they lay in ambush, before he was aware of their presence. A skirmish ensued, in which Dunlap got slightly wounded, and had between twenty and thirty killed and wounded-Ensign McFarland and one private taken prisoners. The Rebel loss is uncertain. A Maj. Smith, Capt. Potts, and two privates, were left dead on the field. Col. Clark, Johnson and twenty privates were seen wounded. We pursued them five miles to the Iron Works, but were not able to overtake them, they being all mounted. We countermarched five miles to Cedar Spring, and halted to refresh during the heat of the day. At six in the evening, marched and took a height near the ground the Rebels left.”

Chesney: "On the 9th August I was appointed Capt. and assistant Adjutant General to the different battalions under Col. Ferguson; and same day we attacked the enemy at the Iron works and defeated them with little trouble to ourselves and a good deal of loss to the Americans, in whose hands I found some of our men prisoners, whom I released.”

Lossing: “While Ferguson was in Spartanburg District, on his way toward Gilbertown, a detachment of his little army had a severe skirmish with Colonel Clark and his men at Greene's Spring. Clark and his company, some two hundred in number, had stopped at the plantation of Captain Dillard, who was one of them, and, after partaking of refreshments, proceeded to Greene's Spring. The same evening Ferguson arrived at Dillard's, whose wife soon learned, from the conversation of some of his men, that they knew where Clark was encamped, and intended to surprise him that night. She hastily prepared supper for Ferguson and his men, and while they were eating she stole from the room, bridled a young horse, and, without a saddle, rode to the encampment of Clark, and warned him of impending danger. In an instant every man was at his post, prepared for the enemy. Very soon Colonel Dunlap, with two hundred picked mounted men, sent by Ferguson, fell upon the camp of Clark. Day had not yet dawned, and the enemy were greatly surprised and disconcerted when they found the Americans fully prepared to meet them. For fifteen minutes the conflict raged desperately in the gloom, when the Tories were repulsed with great slaughter, and the survivors hastened back to Ferguson's camp.”

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Traditions and Reminiscences, Chiefly of the American Revolution in the South Including Biographical Sketches, Incidents, and Anecdotes, Few of which Have Been Published, Particularly of Residents in the Upper Country By Joseph Johnson
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Traditions and Reminiscences, Chiefly of the American Revolution in the South Including Biographical Sketches, Incidents, and Anecdotes, Few of which Have Been Published, Particularly of Residents in the Upper Country By Joseph Johnson
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady

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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady
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The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780 By Edward McCrady

In November 1780, General Thomas Sumter rested at the Iron Works location for two days after the Battle of Blackstock's, in which he was wounded. It was here that Colonel William Washington stopped to have their horses shod on the way to the Battle of Cowpens in January 1781. In November, 1781, Bloody Bill Cunningham burned the Wofford Iron Works to stop them from making iron for the Patriot cause. It was rebuilt after the War. And after the War, many iron works began to appear.

The Players
Major Patrick Ferguson - was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1744. The 'Bulldog' was thin, wiry, implausibly swashbuckling. His nickname was Pattie and he was gentle, cultured, had a witty sense of humour, wrote verses, cracked jokes and left charming letters to his wife. Brown haired when unpowdered. In the photo above, he is wearing his military queue pinned on top of his head.

In 1756, when Pattie was 12, his father purchased an ensigncy for him in his uncle Colonel James Murray's regiment, the 15th Foot, but it was cancelled, because he was too young to be of service. In 1759, shortly after his fifteenth birthday, Pattie was bought a Cornetcy in the Royal North British Dragoons (Scots Greys). However, he did not join his regiment until 1761. For nearly two years he studied at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich. When he was 17, while serving in Germany, he contracted an illness (possibly TB) that left him with a slightly lame leg and left him prone to arthritis when he overtaxed his leg.

In 1763 he traveled around Britain with his Royal North British Dragoons (Scots Greys) on garrisoning and policing duty. In 1768, he served in the West Indies battling scurvy and learning the fiddle. He bought a sugar plantation there but contracted fever and returned to England in 1773.

Ferguson attended camp in Salisbury in 1775, where he first attracted the attention of Major General William Howe. In 1776, he worked on developing a breech-loading rifle, which he demonstrated to King George III and began working on a small field piece.

In 1777, Patrick Ferguson was given command of an experimental unit and sent to America. In March 1777, Pattie and his corps sailed on the Christopher to New York, where they arrived on 26 May. The experimental field piece blew up in its first test, having been sent out with the wrong size ammunition. However, the corps - uniformed in the green cloth which had been sent out with them - saw some action in New Jersey. They took part in the expedition to the Chesapeake, where Howe, a light infantry enthusiast, was impressed with them.

Ferguson's Corps performed well in the battle, fighting alongside the Queen's Rangers, under James Wemyss. Pattie had the chance to pick off a important-looking Rebel officer, but declined to do so for reasons of honour. He was later told in hospital that the officer may have been Washington, but this has not been proved. Moments after the alleged encounter with Washington, a musket ball shattered Pattie's right elbow-joint. He spent the winter in Philadelphia, recuperating. He nearly lost his arm in amputation. He endured numerous unanaesthetised operations to remove bone splinters which repeatedly broke open his wounds. In November, he also received news of his father's death the previous June. He was never again able to wield his limbs as before. His right arm was crippled, permanently bent at the elbow: he later received the King's Bounty for its effective loss. He therefore learned to write, fence and shoot left-handed.

It was 13 May 1778 before he was fit to return to duty. Barely a year after he was disabled, he led daring raids against Rebel salt works and privateer bases at Chestnut Neck and Egg Harbor, NJ. Heavy casualties were inflicted on the enemy, but he tried to avoid harming civilians. Early in 1779, Pattie led reconnaissance and mapping missions in New York and New Jersey. In December he was given command of the American Volunteers, made up of New York and New Jersey Loyalists. They set sail on 26 December 1779, landing at Tybee a month later. On 7 February 1780 at Savannah, Clinton formalised Pattie's provincial brevet as Lieutenant Colonel of the American Volunteers. While in Savannah, Pattie drew up designs for refortifying the city.

On 14 March, Pattie was bayoneted through the left arm in a 'friendly fire' incident at MacPherson's Plantation, SC, when Major Charles Cochrane and the British Legion infantry mistook his encampment for that of the enemy. For 3 weeks, he had limited use of his one good arm, but chivalrously forgave Cochrane. During the siege of Charleston, Pattie worked closely with Banastre Tarleton to cut off Rebel supply routes. He was made a Mojor in the 71st Foot. On 22 May, Pattie was appointed Inspector of Militia by Clinton, to recruit and train local Loyalists, a post for which he refused to accept any additional pay. His base for most of that summer was around Fort Ninety-Six. The militia flocked to him, and he began training them to respond to signals from his light infantry silver whistle. He got a new nickname, the Silver Whistle.

Pattie's men had been pursuing Clarke, who defeated Loyal militia at Musgrove's Mill on 18 August. At Winn's Plantation the next day, Pattie learned of the victory at Camden. He then set out to pursue Sumter, but on 21 August learned that Tarleton had surprised and defeated the 'Gamecock' at Fishing Creek. On 23 August, Pattie rode to Camden to get new instructions from Cornwallis. He was to operate on the left flank, detached from the main body of the army: to aid the Loyalists, and forage from and punish the Rebels.

Pattie marched his men up into North Carolina on 7 September. Leaving most encamped, he took 50 American Volunteers and 300 militia towards Gilbert Town and Cane Creek, to surprise McDowell. But McDowell, like Clarke, Shelby and Williams, had withdrawn into the Back Country. Pattie paroled a prisoner to warn these Rebels "that if they did not desist from opposition... he would march his army over the mountains, hang their leaders, and lay their country waste with fire and sword". Shelby passed on the message to Sevier, of the Washington County Militia.

On 1 October, at Denard's Ford, Pattie wrote to Cornwallis that more Rebels were mustering. He began to withdraw towards Charlotte, and wrote to Cornwallis requesting support. The Legion could not be sent out immediately, because Tarleton had been seriously ill with yellow fever or malaria, and was still weak. Instead, Cornwallis ordered Pattie to rendezvous with Major Archibald McArthur and the 71st at Arness Ford. On 6 October, Pattie and his troops set off towards Charlotte, but encamped at King's Mountain (now a National Park), to wait for McArthur's approach. The following afternoon, the Rebel forces surrounded King's Mountain and launched a surprise assault. Incited by Doak's sermon, and by exaggerated reports that Tarleton had 'massacred' Buford's command at Waxhaws in May, their countersign was "Buford". The implication was "No quarter" for Ferguson and his men - or his women. The Loyalist militia, running low on ammunition, began to fall back. Some seventy uniformed American Volunteers bore the brunt of the fighting. They raced from one side of the mountain to the other, making bayonet charges that thrice succeeded in driving back the Rebels - but only briefly. Pattie was in the thick of the action, sword in hand, riding to the weakest points of the line to rally his men, signalling with his famous whistle. Two horses were shot from under him. He took a third. It was a grey: his career had come full circle. Knowing that there was scant hope of quarter, he swore he "never would yield to such a damn'd banditti". With two other mounted militia officers, Colonel Vezey Husbands and Major Daniel Plummer, he led a last, desperate attempt to break the enemy line, and, sword drawn, spurred his horse forward - into a blaze of rifle-fire. Husbands was killed outright, Plummer badly wounded. Pattie himself was a conspicuous target, with his sword in his left hand, his bent-up right arm, and a checked duster-shirt protecting his uniform. A massive volley blasted him from the saddle. About a dozen balls shattered his body. His foot caught in the stirrup of his horse as he fell, and he was dragged along the ground. He died within minutes, in the arms of his friends being the only British to fall as all his other men were Loyalists. Jubilant Rebels stripped and urinated on his corpse, before his orderly Elias Powell and other companions were allowed to bathe and shroud him in a raw beef-hide. He was buried in a shallow grave. The rest - nearly 700 men, including walking wounded-were marched off as prisoners. Along the way, they were ill-used, even hacked with swords. Campbell had to order his officers to "restrain the disorderly manner of slaughtering and disturbing the prisoners". News of Pattie's death reached his family about 10 days before Christmas. He is still buried at King's Mountain.

James Dunlap
Dunlap was a Loyalist officer under Patrick Ferguson. We don't know his early life, but he was commissioned a captain November 27, 1776, in the Queens American Rangers, a Loyalist Provincial unit originally raised by Robert Rogers, of French & Indian War fame. Named for Queens County, New York, the Rangers included men from Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York.

Dunlap served at the Battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777, in the British campaign that resulted in the capture of Philadelphia. Dunlap commanded a company that attacked the Hancock House in Salem, New Jersey, on March 20, 1778. Following orders from his commander, Dunlap and his men killed both the Patriot garrison and the Loyalists being held there!

When the British retreated from Philadelphia, Dunlap's company was in the Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey, June, 1778. On August 31, 1778, Dunlap's men ambushed a party of Patriots escorting a group of Sturbridge Indians. Twenty Patriots and 20 Indians died, including the chief and his son.

Dunlap came south with Ferguson in the British campaign against Charleston. Dunlap commanded troops during the summer of 1780, including at Earle's Ford on July 14 and the Peach Orchard (second Cedar Spring or Wifford's Iron Works) in August. At Earle's Ford, Dunlap surprised Charles McDowell in his camp on the Pacolet River in today's Polk County, then Rutherford County. This action seriously damaged the military reputation of Charles McDowell

In September, when Noah Hampton appeared before Ferguson, Dunlap was quite clear in his condemnation: "He is one of the d—dest Rebels in all the country, and ought to be strung up at once, without fear or favor." While Ferguson ignored this suggestion, it is a revealing story.

Dunlap was a man whose opposition to the Patriot cause was well known. His reputation was not one of compromise or lenience. Draper called Dunlap "an advocate for hanging Whigs for no other crime than sympathizing with their suffering country." Major James Sevier remarked that Dunlap's "severities incensed the people against him."

September 12, 1780, Dunlap was wounded at the battle of Cane Creek. Draper reported Dunlap was taken to the home of William Gilbert in Gilbert Town. Dunlap was unable to travel when Ferguson left. A soldier named Coates was left behind to take care of Dunlap. Coates, however, was killed soon after and his body "burned in a coal pit!" Not much later, a Captain Gillespie arrived from Spartanburg, looking for Dunlap. Saying he came to avenge Mary McRae, Gillespie asked Dunlap, "Where is Mary McRae?" "In Heaven," replied Dunlap. At this reply, Gillespie shot Dunlap and rode away. Reportedly, Sarah Gilbert or her son buried Dunlap near the house.

Ah, but there's more. Another story says that Mrs. Gilbert and her son shot Dunlap! Or was Dunlap not dead, only wounded and hiding until recovered? That was yet another story. We do know that Dunlap arrived in Ninety Six, South Carolina, in March, 1781, and returned to duty by March 21, 1781.

The diary of Uzal Johnson gives the probable answer. Johnson reported that Dunlap was taken to John Walker's house on September 13, 1780, for treatment. The house was fortified and guarded by 20 men under Captain James Chitwood. When the army prepared to withdraw, Johnson and Dunlap moved on September 24 to Gilbert's home. On September 28, they moved to the plantation of James Adair. When Ferguson withdrew further, Johnson and Dunlap crossed the Broad River into South Carolina and stopped at the Powers home on September 30. On October 3, Dunlap was left at the Case home, and Johnson went east with the baggage, later joining up with Ferguson on Buffalo Creek before the army went to King's Mountain.

Draper continues Dunlap's story in March, 1781, when Dunlap was collecting supplies and forage for the garrison at Ninety Six. Patriot forces under Elijah Clarke and James McCall were sent to intercept Dunlap. They found him at Beattie's Mill on the Little River in the Long Canes area of South Carolina. Dunlap was wounded and captured along with 41 in his command. Thirty-four of Dunlap's men were killed. According to a report by Andrew Pickens, Dunlap was murdered soon after he surrendered. McCall reported Dunlap died the next night.

So when did Dunlap die? James Sevier reported he died at Gilbert Town. The Hampton family tradition was that he died at Gilbert Town in the fall. When A.J. Forney tore down the Gilbert house, he reportedly saved the blood-stained floorboards from where Dunlap was shot. On the other hand, other reports say Forney tore down the old courthouse. Dunlap's grave was reported to be near the house. That site has been identified, although it is close to both the hospital (presumably the old tavern) and the house site.

Isaac Shelby
Shelby was born on December 11, 1750 at North Mountain, near Hagerstown, Maryland, in Frederick (now Washington) County, MD. His father, Evan Shelby, was an emigrant from Wales and his mother was Letitia Cox Shelby. Isaac was brought up to the use of arms and he became used to the dangers and hardships of frontier life at a young age. He received a fair English education, worked on his father's plantation, was occasionally employed as a surveyor, and served as deputy sheriff of the county. He moved to what is now Bristol, Tennessee in 1771 with his father. Evan Shelby served with distinction in the French and Indian War. In 1774, Isaac served as lieutenant in his fathers Fincastle Company at the Battle of Point Pleasant in Lord Dunmore's War, a conflict with British and the Indians. Following that, he explored the territory of Kentucky as a surveyor.

In July 1776, he was appointed by the Virginia Committee of Safety as captain of a company of minutemen. In 1777, Governor Henry made him Commissary of Supplies for a body of militia detailed to garrison frontier posts. He attended the Long Island Treaty with the Cherokees, concluded at Fort Patrick Henry, on July 20, 1 777, at which his father was one of the Virginia commissioners. In 1778, he aided in furnishing supplies for the Continental Army and for the expedition projected by General Mcintosh against Detroit and the Ohio Indians. In 1779 he was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates, but, by the line established between Virginia and North Carolina at this time, he became a resident of North Carolina and he was appointed colonel of the Sullivan County militia, which in 1780 he commanded in guerilla fighting that included Musgrove's Mill, and he led the left center of the American force at King's Mountain and was at the Battle of Cowpens. For his service at King's Mountain, he received the thanks of the legislature of North Carolina with a beautiful sword. In 1781, he served under Francis Marion for the remainder of the War. In 1782, he was a member of the legislature of North Carolina and later served as commissioner to settle claims on the Cumberland River and to lay off soldiers' lands near the site of Nashville.

He moved to Boonsborough, Kentucky, where he married Susanna Hart with whom he had eleven children. They settled near Stanford in Lincoln County, Kentucky where he worked as county surveyor and high sheriff. In 1783, he began building a stone house which he named Traveller's Rest. He completed Traveller's Rest in 1786.

He was a member of the convention which framed the first constitution of Kentucky. Having participated in the separation of the State from Virginia, he was elected the first Governor of Kentucky in 1796. In 1812 when war with England loomed again, Shelby was again elected governor and served another 4 years.

In 1813 and as a Major General of militia, he personally led 4,000 Kentucky volunteers under General Harrison to Detriot. On October 5, 1813, he and his troops marched into Canada. He was then sixty-three years of age. At the Battle of the Thames (aka Battle of Moraviatown) near Chatham, Ontario in Upper Canada, on the Thames River, he served under American General William Henry Harrison and led his Kentucky militia. The Americans scored a decisive victory over British General Henry Proctor. Shelby recieved a gold medal for his gallantry and bravery in this battle.

In 1817, President Monroe offered to appoint him Secretary of War, but he declined. In 1818, he was commissioned with General Andrew Jackson to hold a treaty with the Chickasaw Indians for the purchase of lands west of the Tennessee River, which is now known as the Jackson Purchase. In 1819, Shelby became the chairman of the first board of trustees of Centre College. Shelby was partially paralyzed in 1820 by a stroke. On July 18, 1826, another stroke killed Shelby while he was at his home Traveller's Rest. No less than nine counties in as many States have been named after him as well as a number of towns.

Elijah Clarke
Elijah Clarke was born in 1742, the son of John Clarke of Anson County, North Carolina. He married Hannah Harrington around 1763. As an impoverished, illiterate frontiersman, he appeared in the ceded lands, on what was then the northwestern frontier of Georgia, in 1773.

Clarke's name appears on a petition in support of the king's government in 1774. However, he subsequently joined the rebels and, as a militia captain, received a wound fighting the Cherokees in 1776. The following year, he commanded militia against Creek Indian raiders. As a lieutenant colonel in the state minutemen, Clarke received another wound at the Battle of Alligator Bridge, Florida. Then on February 14, 1779, as a lieutenant colonel of militia, Clarke led a charge in the rebel victory at Kettle Creek, Georgia. All of Georgia and most of South Carolina fell to the British in 1780. Elijah Clarke and thirty men passed through the Native American lands to continue the fight in the Carolinas. As a partisan, Clarke led frontier guerrillas in inflicting a heavy toll against the British and American Loyalists at Musgrove's Mill, Cedar Springs, Wofford's Iron Works, Augusta, Fishdam Ford, Long Cane, and Blackstocks. He was not present at King's Mountain or Cowpens, but his campaigns were partially responsible for both of those major Patriot victories. Besides receiving several battle wounds, Clarke also survived smallpox and the mumps during the Revolution. The state of Georgia rewarded his services with a plantation. He also obtained thousands of acres of land grants, some by questionable methods, and participated in the notorious Yazoo land fraud of the 1790s.

Clarke served in the state assembly from 1781 to 1790. However, Clarke grew impatient with the failures of the national and state government to bring peace to the frontier and took matters into his own hands. He tried to form an independent republic, known today as the Trans-Oconee Republic, by seizing Creek lands on the Oconee frontier. At least twice, he became involved in plots to invade neighboring Spanish East Florida.

Disenchanted with a settled Georgia, discredited, and almost bankrupt, Elijah Clarke died in Augusta on December 5, 1799.

The Berwicks
Text not available
Sketches of Western North Carolina, Historical and Biographical Illustrating Principally the Revolutionary Period of Mecklenburg, Rowan, Lincoln, and Adjoining Counties, Accompanied with Miscellaneous Information, Much of it Never Before Published By C. L. Hunter
Text not available
Sketches of Western North Carolina, Historical and Biographical Illustrating Principally the Revolutionary Period of Mecklenburg, Rowan, Lincoln, and Adjoining Counties, Accompanied with Miscellaneous Information, Much of it Never Before Published By C. L. Hunter
Text not available
Sketches of Western North Carolina, Historical and Biographical Illustrating Principally the Revolutionary Period of Mecklenburg, Rowan, Lincoln, and Adjoining Counties, Accompanied with Miscellaneous Information, Much of it Never Before Published By C. L. Hunter

Colonel Charles McDowell
Col. Charles McDowell and his brothers, Joseph and William, were sons of Joseph McDowell and Margaret O'Neal, who emigrated from Ireland and settled in Winchester, Va. Here, Charles and Joseph were born, the former in 1743. Soon afterward, Joseph McDowell, Sr., moved to Burke county, N.C.

In June, 1780, Colonel Charles McDowell being joined by Colonels Isaac Shelby and John Sevier from Tennessee, and by Colonel Clarke, of Georgia, near the Cherokee Ford on Broad river, in South Carolina, he determined to attack a post held by the enemy on Pacolet river, in Spartanburg county. The position was strongly fortified under the command of Captain Patrick Moore, a distinguished loyalist. On being surrounded, the enemy, after some parley as to terms, surrendered as prisoners of war. One British Sergeant Major, ninety-three loyalists, two hundred and fifty fire-arms and other munitions of war were the fruits of this victory. Soon afterward Col. McDowell detached Shelby to watch the movements of Ferguson, and attack him. On the 1st of August, 1780, Shelby met the advance guard of Ferguson at Cedar Spring, about six hundred strong, when a spirited contest commenced; but on the enemy being reinforced, Shelby made good his retreat, carrying off from the field twenty prisoners, including two British officers.

On learning that a body of five hundred Tories had assembled on the south side of Enoree river, near Musgrove's Mill, Colonel McDowell detached Colonels Shelby, Williams and Clarke to attack them. Colonel Ferguson, with his whole force, lay encamped between them. They left the camp on the 18th of August at Smith's Ford on Broad river, and taking a circuitous route through the woods, avoided Ferguson's forces. They rode hard all night, and at daybreak encountered a strong patrol party of the enemy. A skirmish immediately ensued and the Tories retreated. They then advanced on the main body of the Tories. At this juncture a countryman living near, a friend of liberty, came to Shelby and informed him that the enemy had been reinforced the evening before, by six hundred regular troops, and the Queen's American regiment from New York, commanded by Colonel Innis, marching to join Ferguson. Here was a position that would have tried the talent and nerve of the most skillful and brave officer. Advance was hopeless, and retreat impossible. But Shelby was equal to the emergency. He immediately commenced forming a breast-work of brush and old logs, while he detailed twenty-five tried men to reconnoiter and skirmish with the enemy as soon as they crossed the Enoree river. The drums and bugles of the enemy were soon heard marching upon this devoted band. Captain Inman had been ordered to fire and retreat. This stratagem, suggested by Captain Inman himself, was successful in its object. The enemy advanced in rapid pursuit and in great confusion, believing that the whole American force was routed. When they approached the rude breast-work of Shelby, they received from his riflemen a most destructive fire, which carried great slaughter among them. This was gallantly kept up; all the British officers were killed or wounded, and Hawsey, the Tory leader, shot down. The enemy then began a disorderly retreat. The Americans now in turn pursued, and in this pursuit the brave Captain Inman was killed, fighting hand to hand with the enemy. Colonel Shelby commanded the right wing, Colonel Clarke the left, and Colonel Williams the center.

The British loss in this brilliant and well-planned battle, was sixty-three killed and one hundred wounded and prisoners; the American loss was only four killed, including Captain Inman, and Captain Clarke wounded.

The triumphant victors were about to remount and advance on the British post at Ninety Six, when an express arrived from Colonel McDowell, with a letter from Governor Caswell, informing them of the defeat of General Gates at Camden on the 16th of August, and advising the retreat of our troops, as the British, flushed with victory, would advance in strong force and cut off all detachments of our people. With Ferguson near him, Colonel Shelby, encumbered with more than two hundred prisoners, acted with energy and promptness. He distributed the prisoners among the companies, each behind a private, and without stopping day or night, retreated over the mountains to a place of safety.

This rapid movement saved his men and himself. On the next day Major DePeyster, of Ferguson's forces, with a strong body of men, made an active but fruitless search.

In consequence of the panic after Gates' defeat on the 16th of August, 1780, and the surprise and dispersion of Sumter's forces at Fishing creek by Tarleton's cavalry on the 18th following, Colonel McDowell disbanded, for a time, his little army, and he himself retreated over the mountains.

This was a dark and doleful period of American history. The British flag floated in triumph over Charleston and Savannah. The troops of Lord Cornwallis, with all the pomp and circumstance of glory, advanced from the battle-field of Camden to Charlotte, with the fond expectation of soon placing North Carolina under his subjection. Many of the brave had despaired of final success, and the timid, and some of the wealthy, to save their property, had taken "protection" under the enemy. Colonel Ferguson, with chosen troops, was ravaging the whole western portion of upper South Carolina, subduing in his progress to western North Carolina, all opponents of English power, and encouraging, by bribes and artifice, others to join the royal standard.

Under all these discouraging circumstances the brave "Mountain Boys," and other kindred spirits of the west never despaired. On the mountain heights of North Carolina, and in her secure retreats, like Warsaw's "last champion," stood the stalwart soldiers of that day:

"Oh Heaven! they said, our bleeding country save! Is there no hand on high to shield the brave? What though destruction sweep these lovely plains!--Rise, fellow-men! our country yet remains; By that dread name, we wave the sword on high, And swear for her to live! for her to die!"

If the sky was then gloomy, a storm was gathering in these mountain retreats which was soon to descend in all its fury on the heads of the enemies of our country. In a short time afterward the battle of King's Mountain was fought and won by the patriots, which spread a thrill of joy throughout the land.

Colonel Charles McDowell was elected the first Senator to the State Legislature from Burke county in 1778, and successively from 1782 to 1790. From 1791 to 1795, he was succeeded in the same position by his brother, Major Joseph McDowell. About this period, at three or four different times, all three of the members of the Assembly to which the county was entitled were of this family, which proved their great popularity and worth. Major Joseph McDowell also served as a member of Congress from 1793 to 1795, and from 1797 to 1799. He lived on John's river, and died there. His family returned to Virginia, where some of his descendants may still be found. One of his sons, Hugh Harvey, settled in Missouri, and Joseph J. McDowell, in Ohio, who was a member of Congress from that State from 1843 to 1847.

General Charles McDowell married Grace Greenlee, the widow of Captain John Bowman, who fell at the battle of Ramsour's Mill. By this union he had several children, one of whom was the late Captain Charles McDowell, who resided on the Catawba river, near Morganton.

General Charles McDowell died on the 31st of March, 1815, aged about seventy-two years.
-Sketches Of Western North Carolina, Historical And Biographical, Burke County, North Carolina Biographies.

Tales From the South Carolina Upstate by Nancy Rhyne
The Day It Rained Militia, Huck's Defeat and the Revolution in the SC Back Country, May-July, 1780 by Michael C. Scoggins
Colonial and Revolutionary History of Upper SC by Dr. J.B.O. Landrum
Traditions and Reminiscencess Chiefly of the American Revolution In The South by Joseph Johnson, M.D., Published 1851

Charlie Bit Me

This adorable video is short but so cute!

Tuesday, January 13, 2009

Baby's Name Stays The Same

The verdict is in. I talked to Jenny yesterday and they've decided to keep the name of Brett Robert after all. So here is the baby's video.

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