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Contact me at Mom25dogs@gmail.com

Friday, March 07, 2008

Dinner in Columbia, SC

Today we went to Columbia, SC to meet with Jenny, Joshua and Jacob, 3 of our nieces and nephews. Jenny's new job required a week of training in Columbia. Jacob is in college at USC and Joshua is working at the Columbia Public Library. We are still shocked to see them all grown up. They are very smart and we are so proud of them. Joshua did so well in college and now he's graduated and working. Jacob is doing well in his classes with A's and B's. Jenny has graduated and is married and is working. It's amazing. We still see them as babies and toddlers! We have 9 nieces and nephews. They range from 25 down to 4 yrs old. Jenny and Joshua have graduated from college. Luke is in the Air Force. Jacob and Evans are in college. Lee is working. Katie and Aaron are in high school and Logan is in kindergarten. Each one is so special and we love them and are so proud of them.

Mom, Stan, Stan's Mother, and I got together and drove to Columbia and got there about 6:15pm. We met them at the hotel that Jenny is staying at and took them out to eat supper at the Texas Roadhouse Steakhouse. I had to take Persephone with me because, with her broken leg, I can't leave her. I don't want her to be alone and trying to jump up on the furniture and I didn't want to leave her in her crate for hours at a time. She is such a comfort and loving little thing.

Thursday, March 06, 2008

Ninety Six SC

Ninety Six, SC

Ninety Six was named from the mistaken idea that it was 96 miles from the nearest Cherokee settlement of Keowee. It was a campground along the Cherokee Path. Located centrally on a path which was worn over many years by the travel of Cherokee Indians, traders often stopped at Ninety Six on their way to Keowee, trading firearms and numerous goods and supplies for deer skins and furs. The Cherokee trail became a vital commercial pathway which was crucial to the success of the thriving colony. The first residents were hunters, followed by cattle drovers and Indian Traders. By 1753, Robert Gouedy had built a trading post here which soon rivaled some Charleston merchants in volume of trade. Gouedy amassed over 1500 acres in land ownership before his death in 1775, at which time over 500 settlers were believed to be in his debt. During the war with the Cherokees, local militia built a stockade around Gouedy's barn. During the French and Indian War, the town was attacked twice by the Cherokee.

In 1769, seven circuit court districts were established and courthouses were set up for each district. In Ninety-Six District the courthouse was established in the village of Ninety-Six. It was a prosperous village by the time of the Revolutionary War.

Revolutionary War-era terms to know

Whigs and Tories - the two British political parties during the 17th to 19th centuries. Whigs believed in Constitutional Monarchy and were opposed to absolute rule. Tories supported the Monarchy and the Church of England.

Loyalists - Before the Revolutionary War, Americans considered themselves British colonists and followed British law. Many didn't want to rebel against the English King George. American colonists who remained loyal to the British crown during the Revolutionary War were called Loyalists, Royalists, King's Men, even Tories, and Provincials

Patriots - Those who were tired of being under the tyranny of a monarch and believed in breaking away from England and forming a new country were called Rebels, Whigs, Patriot's, Congress Men, Americans.

The first land battle south of New England was fought at Ninety Six in 1775. On November 3, 1775, Loyalists seized a Patriot munitions convoy. Divided loyalties over the issue of American independence gave way to violence when a force of over 1800 Loyalists attacked 600 Patriot soldiers under the command of Major Andrew Williamson, which were amassed at Ninety Six. Both sides gathered their forces and the Loyalists, under the command of Patrick Cunningham, attacked the Patriots at Ninety Six. After a brief three-day siege, a truce was called to allow the leaders to settle their differences. The confrontation ends with the Treaty of Ninety Six, which was designed to promote peace between the Whigs, or rebels, and the Tories, or loyalists. It would soon dissolve. Historians differ on the Spartan Regiment's placement during this time. Varying opinions have them on the home front, at Ninety Six or at the capture of Fort Johnson near Charles Town, which was Sept. 15 of that year. More Patriot forces arrived under the command of Colonel Richard Richardson who ignored the truce and dispersed the Loyalists into Cherokee country. James Birmingham, of the Long Cane Militia, is considered to have been the 1st Patriot killed in the South during the American Revolution. Not much is known about him other than he might have lived on Penny's Creek off of Long Cane Creek in present Abbeville County. He was killed during the 1st Battle of Ninety Six at the Stockade Fort, November 19-21, 1775.

Following the surrender of Charleston on May 12, 1780, Ninety Six became an important Loyalist stronghold among four key outposts that included Augusta, GA to the southwest and Camden, SC and Georgetown, SC to the east. Ninety Six served as a base of operations for Patrick Ferguson. It was from here that he recruited the Loyalist militia that would later be destroyed at Kings Mountain. After Ferguson's defeat, the Ninety Six Outpost was garrisoned by about 550 Loyalists from New York, New Jersey and South Carolina under the command of John Harris Cruger. Cruger was a competent commander from New Jersey and he knew the importance of this outpost in maintaining British control over the south. The outpost was well garrisoned with a star-shaped fort, a stockaded village and a stockade fort at the western end. Many thought Ninety Six was impregnable.

A star fort or trace italienne is a fortification in the style was developed the age of black powder and cannon. The circular forts of the medieval era proved vulnerable to damage or destruction by cannonfire, when it could be directed from outside against a perpendicular masonry wall. In contrast, the star fortress was a very flat structure usually of dirt and brick and composed of many triangular bastions, specifically designed to cover each other and a ditch. British engineer Lt Henry Haldane decided that an 8 point star fort would be better for the site than a tradition square fort. During the Siege of Ninety Six, the Star Fort was 14 feet high with an additional 3 feet of sand bags.

The British built a "stockade fort" in 1781 on property owned by James Holmes, a Loyalist, to protect the garrison's water supply. An irregular fortification built around a barn and several out buildings, the stockade was surrounded by a ditch and abatis and was linked to the town by a communications trench.

When he arrived from Augusta, Georgia, in June 1781, Lt. Col. Henry "Lighthorse Harry" Lee assumed command of the Patriot attack against the Stockade Fort with 1,000 men. In the final American assault on June 18, Lee's men captured the redoubt, but held it only until General Nathaniel Greene ordered the attack ended. General Greene brought his Continental Army to Ninety Six on May 22, 1781. Greene appointed his aide, Colonel Thaddeus Kosciusko, to direct siege operations. The Patriot chief engineer Thaddeus Kosciuszko viewed the situation and he believed that the Star Fort was the strongest Loyalist held position and that if it fell so would the town and Stockade Fort. Under Kosciusko's direction, sappers (trench diggers) began digging a series of approach trenches (or saps) and parallels which would allow Patriot forces to advance to within musket range of the fort without compromising positions. The saps were originally 4 to 7 feet wide and 2 to 3 feet deep. The 1s approach trench was started as soon as the Patriots arrived and was completed May 27. The 3rd and last parallel was completed June 10. The Patriots used gabions and fascines to make the saps higher and safer. Gabions were baskets filled with dirt made from vines and twigs. Fascines were bundles of branches that were 5 to 12 feet long and tied together. The Gabions and fascines on the saps allowed the Patriots to stand up and pass supplies along the trenches. The first parallel was completed on June 1, 1781, eleven days after siege operations commenced. By June 10th, Patriot forces had finished digging the third parallel, which placed them within firing range of the fort. To dig in the hard clay of upstate SC is hard work. The Patriots wore themselves out quickly and suffered from the heat, broken shovels, and attacks from the Loyalists. During the night of June 13, they decided to try a new tactic and built a Maham Tower. It is named after Lt Col. Hezekiah Maham, one of Francis Marion's men who first developed the idea at Fort Watson earlier in the War. So Greene ordered his forces to construct this rifle tower which would provide his forces an opportunity to suppress cannon and musket fire from inside the fort which had been plaguing Patriot soldiers since the siege began. The original tower was 30 feet tall. Sharpshooters could go up into the tower and fire into the Star Fort. To stop this the Loyalists tried to burn the tower but it was built from green wood and would not burn. Another tactic that the Patriots tried was to build a mine. From the 3rd parallel they dug down 6 feet then started digging toward the Star Fort. The idea was to dig the mine under the Star fort, pack it with gunpowder, and blow a hole in the Star's walls to allow the Patriots to attack inside. The mine was not completed and still exists today.

The following day, Greene learned that a column of 2000 British troops were marching in relief of Cruger's forces to support the remaining Loyalist garrison. Greene, fearing that his forces would become trapped between the Loyalists and the approaching relief corps, resolved to storm the post by mounting simultaneous attacks on the east and west fronts. The assault began at noon on June 18. The general divided his forces between the stockade fort on the west with mounted forces under the command of "Light Horse" Harry Lee and the Star Fort on the east, attacking both simultaneously. The west contingent fought their way into the Stockade Fort, but the troops attacking the Star Fort met fierce resistance and were repelled after heavy casualties on both sides. With his force exhausted and weary, and the approaching British relief column not far away, General Greene opted not to organize another assault and gathered his forces for a pre-dawn retreat on the morning of June 20. Patriot forces did not retreat in vain however, as they inflicted such massive damage to the fort and the surrounding village that the British decided to abandon the location several weeks later. Cruger burned the town of Ninety Six, destroyed supplies, and then left Ninety Six to the backcountry Patriots. He received compliments by Sir Henry Clinton.

The Players

John Harris Cruger was a wealthy New York Loyalist who served as lieutenant-colonel of the First Battalion of DeLancey's Brigade (provincial troops) and commanded the post at Ninety-Six through most of the Southern Campaign. He went south with Lt. Col. Archibald Campbell's expedition in 1778, and participated in both the capture of Savannah (Dec. 29, 1778) and its later defense (Oct. 1779). He was captured by the rebels in June, 1780 (supposedly taken at a dinner party celebrating the King's birthday), but was exchanged in time to take an active part in the rest of the Carolinas campaign. When Lord Rawdon retired from Ninety-Six, he evacuated Cruger and his men, and after that they served with the main British force. Cruger fought at Eutaw Springs (Sep. 8, 1781), and again was commended for his participation in the action in Lt. Col. Stewart's report on the battle: "My particular thanks is due to Lieutenant Colonel Cruger, who commanded the front line, for his conduct and gallantry during the action[.]" He later took part in the defense of Charleston, in command of a critical forward defense post. According to the New-York Gazette, the Loyalists of Charleston gave Cruger a public thank you for his services, prior to his departure. After the evacuation of Charleston, Cruger returned to New York. He had lost all of his property to rebel confiscation, and began to make plans to "give up further military pursuits and go to England." He arrived in London in July, 1783, and lived out the remainder of his life in exile and died in London in 1807. Cruger was married to Ann DeLancey, the daughter of New York Loyalist Oliver DeLancey, Sr. Ann sailed from New York to join her husband while he was stationed in Georgia, but was captured en route by D'Estaing and remained his prisoner for a time. When she was released, she joined her husband and remained at his side through the rest of the campaign, including accompanying him to Ninety-Six. When that post was under siege, General Nathanael Greene is said to have placed a guard on her house, outside the fort, to protect her from being harmed by members of his army. At the end of the war, Ann went into exile with her husband and died in Chelsea, in 1822. (The picture was done by Robert Wilson.)

The Greene family was among the earliest settlers in Rhode Island and helped establish the colony. John Greene was the founder of the family in the new colony. Nathanael Greene was born July 27, 1742 (old style, which is August 7, 1742 new style). General Nathanael Greene was named for his father, who was a respected minister of the Society of Friends (Quakers) and a prosperous businessman. Greene's mother was Mary Motte, the second wife of his father. Because of Quaker beliefs about education, Greene was only taught reading, writing, and business math. In due course Greene used every possible moment to read books and saved his money to buy books so that eventually he acquired a large library. Greene had also been taught blacksmithing and the milling work. His father purchased a mill in Coventry which was assigned to Nathanael to manage. He took an active part in community affairs. Greene was caught up in the general fervor of resistance in New England. After attending a military parade in Connecticut, he became an avid reader of military works. He was questioned by his pacifist Quaker leaders about his interest in the military. The unlawful seizure of one of the Greene family's sloops by the H.M.S. Gaspée, a British revenue schooner, made matters personal. On 20 July 1774, Greene married Catharine Littlefield of Block Island. Caty, as she was known by her friends, was attractive and vivacious and would give him six children. In August of 1774, the men of East Greenwich county formed a militia company, which they later incorporated under the name Kentish Guards. Although Greene was a founding member, his participation in the group was challenged because of a slight limp that he had since childhood. The incident hurt him deeply and was only settled when an influential member of the Guards and close friend, James Mitchell Varnum, threatened to resign if Greene was forced to leave. In April of 1775, the Assembly of Rhode Island met at Providence and established an Army of Observation. Two months later, Greene was given command as a brigadier general of state troops. On 22 June 1775, he was commissioned as the youngest brigadier general in the Continental Army. A month later, he took command of Prospect Hill during the Siege of Boston. But, he missed the Battle of Bunker Hill on 17 June 1775 while petitioning for more supplies in Rhode Island. It was in Boston that Greene first met George Washington. Even during their initial meeting, Washington was greatly impressed. Within a year, he would consider Greene the best of his generals. Greene took command of Long Island in early April of 1776 and he was placed in charge of the Brooklyn defenses where the British Army was expected to attack. In August, he was promoted to the rank of major general, but was sick with fever during the Battle of Long Island, on 27 August 1776. As a result, he did not see his first action until the Battle of Harlem Heights on 16 September 1776. After the battle, he was placed in charge of the American forces guarding the shores of New Jersey at Fort Lee. This would lead to his most costly mistake of the entire war. Hoping for another Bunker Hill, Greene urged his commander to hold nearby Fort Washington, a strategic bastion for the Continental Army on Manhattan Island. Severely outnumbered and outgunned, the garrison of three thousand men fell to the British with little resistance. Afterwards, Greene played was prominent in conducting the retreat of the Continental Army across New Jersey. He commanded the right wing of Washington's task force during the Battle of Trenton on 26 December 1776. He also participated in the Battle of Princeton on 3 January 1777. At the Battle of Brandywine on 11 September 1777, Greene led his division four miles in under fifty minutes through broken country to set up a defensive line that allowed Major General John Sullivan's division to retreat. Then, he closed his lines and held the British at bay until nightfall which gave the main force time to withdraw from the field. At the Battle of Germantown on 4 October 1777, he led the left wing of the army. On 2 March 1778, Washington appointed Greene the new Quartermaster General of the Continental Army. The Quartermaster Department was in shambles and he had to labor long hours just to keep the Army operating. Washington still consulted him on matters of strategy and tactics, and he participated in all councils of war. The next battle that Greene took an active role in was the Battle of Monmouth on 28 June 1778. On 7 June 1780, he commanded the front line at the engagement of Connecticut Farms in New Jersey. Two weeks later, he led the force that repulsed the British at the Battle of Springfield (23 June 1780). Greene resigned as Quartermaster General on 26 July 1780 because he did not agree with Congress's new policy of requisitioning supplies from the individual states. Washington gave Greene command of West Point. After Major General Horatio Gates was defeated by the British Army at the Battle of Camden (16 August 1780), Washington appointed Greene the new Southern Commander. After their stunning victory at Camden, the British had undisputed control of the states of South Carolina and Georgia with a clear path into North Carolina and Virginia. The British commander, Lieutenant General Charles Earl Cornwallis established a chain of posts in order to secure his lines of communication and rally Loyalist support. Greene would have to fight Cornwallis in a region that was a logistical nightmare. His first priority as Southern Commander was to rehabilitate an army that was outnumbered, ill-equipped, and demoralized. Greene split his force in the face of a superior enemy by sending a flying army under the command of Brigadier General Daniel Morgan to threaten Cornwallis and bolster local militia support. He coordinated his efforts with local patriots such as Francis Marion, Andrew Pickens, Thomas Sumter, and Elijah Clarke in petite guerre (partisan operations) against the British. Cornwallis reacted by sending a force under the command of his subordinate, Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, after Morgan in the hope of catching him between the two British forces. When Greene learned of Tarleton's pursuit, he wrote to Morgan, "Col. Tarleton is said to be on his way to pay you a visit. I doubt not but he will have a decent reception and a proper dismission." The result was the Battle of Cowpens on 17 January 1781. Morgan soundly defeated Tarleton in the greatest patriot victory of the war in the South, rivaled only by the repulsion of the British forces at Charleston in 1776. Then, Morgan reunited with the main force and the flight to the Dan River began in earnest. When Greene learned that Cornwallis was in pursuit, he exclaimed, "Then he is ours!" The "Race to the Dan" exemplified the superior mobility of the American Army. In a month's time, the Americans marched two hundred miles to North Carolina eluding the pursuing British in harsh weather. Greene succeeded in escaping the British Army and forced them to overextend their supply lines in one move. Cornwallis returned southward to recruit additional Loyalist support and supplies, while Greene recrossed the Dan River and trailed him. The two forces met head-on at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse on 15 March 1781. Cornwallis succeeded in driving Greene from the field, but he suffered severe casualties. When the British Parliament learned of the battle, Charles James Fox exclaimed, "Another such victory would destroy the British Army." Weakened, Cornwallis withdrew to Wilmington, North Carolina and eventually on to Yorktown, Virginia, where he was defeated by a joint Franco-American force. Next, Greene led his army back into South Carolina and began the 'War of the Posts.' Forces under his command along with partisans simultaneously attacked various points in the exposed British line of forts. He led his main army in three more engagements, the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill (25 April 1781), the Siege of Ninety-Six (22 May-19 June 1781), and the Battle of Eutaw Springs (8 September 1781), the bloodiest engagement of the entire war. Although he succeeded in completely destroying British authority in the southern states, he never achieved a single tactical victory. His lack of success in winning a battle is best summed up in his own words, "We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again." In only twenty months, Greene succeeded in capturing all of the British posts taking 3,500 prisoners and splitting the British Army in half, bottling them up in Charleston and Wilmington. After the war, Greene moved his family to his new estate, Mulberry Grove, just north of Savannah, Georgia. He attempted to settle down to the life of a Southern planter, while spurning attempts by prominent Georgians to involve him in local politics. He was forced to sell additional property awarded to him by the states of North and South Carolina in order to solve severe financial problems caused by the war. Tragically, he died at the age of forty-four on 19 June 1786 of a stroke, possibly caused by overexposure to the sun. His remains and those of his son, George Washington Greene, rest beneath a monument in Johnson Square in downtown Savannah.

Patrick Cunningham - Rebels defeat Capt. Patrick Cunningham, brother at Ninety Six. The attack was retaliation for gunpowder Cunningham had seized in July. Again, some believe the Spartan Regiment was part of the Patriot's force. In December 1775, after having been reinforced by militia from North Carolina, a large Whig force commanded by Colonel Richard Richardson surprised and defeated a Tory force commanded by Patrick Cunningham at a place called the Great Cane Break. During the month of December, Richardson was able to capture a total of 136 Loyalists including Thomas Flechall, John Mayfield and many other Loyalist leaders. Major Robinson, Patrick Cunningham and a few others were able to elude capture, but many of their homes and plantations, including Robinson's, were plundered and burnt by the Rebels.

Waddell's Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, from 1726 to 1871, Chapter 9: The War of the Revolution, etc. from 1775 to 1779. - Page 263 as sent to me by C. Wayne Cunningham of Atlanta, GA. (Thanks, Mr. Cunningham)

"Appleton’s American Biography says: Robert Cunningham, loyalist, born in Ireland about 1739; settled in District Ninety-Six, S. C., in 1769, and soon became a judge. He opposed the cause of the colonies, and in 1775 was imprisoned in Charleston. After his release he joined the British forces, and, in 1780, was commissioned Brigadier General. He first was placed in command of a garrison in S. C., and the following year served in the field against General Sumter. His estate was confiscated in 1782, and, having left the country, he was not allowed to return, although he petitioned to be allowed to do so. The British Government gave him an annuity. He died in Nassau, in 1813.
Patrick Cunningham also entered the British service during the Revolutionary war, and became a Colonel; but seems not to have incurred the odium his brother Robert did. His son Robert was a captain in the Mexican war. Capt. Robert’s son John was prominent in law, politics and journalism, and his daughter Pamela was the organizer and first Regent of the Ladies’ Mt. Vernon Association.
William Cunningham, called “Bloody Bill” in South Carolina, is said to have been a second-cousin of Robert and Patrick. He is otherwise known as Major, or Colonel, William Cunningham, of the British army. Bancroft gives an account of an expedition he commanded in 1781, and the cruelties practised by him. (Vol. X, p. 458.) In Appleton’s American Biography we find a sketch of a man of the same name. He was born in Dublin, and came to America in 1774. Gen. Gage appointed him provost-marshal of the army. In 1778 he had charge of the military prisons in Philadelphia, and later those in New York; and in both places was notorious for his cruelties. It is said that he literally starved to death 2,000 prisoners, and hung 250 without trial. At the close of the war he went to England, became very dissipated, and in 1791 was hanged for forgery. This man was probably the same as “Bloody Bill,” as it is not likely that the same generation could produce two such men. It is a relief to find that the gallows claimed him at last."

Joseph Robinson, a Virginian by birth, owned a plantation on Broad river in South Carolina, where he was a deputy surveyor. He married Lilley Robinson in 1760 in Virginia. In 1775 he was appointed major of militia and, on 11/18/1775, he was in command of 2400 Loyalists at Ninety-Six when he surrounded an American force under Majors Andrew Williamson and James Mayson. Colonel Robinson's men were afterwards allowed to return home, while he went among the friendly Cherokee Indians. In his absence his plantation was plundered, his house and buildings burnt, and his family driven from home by the Americans. Among his possessions destroyed was his valuable library, which included 60 books on law. In Lilley's petition of October 1, 1816, to Viscount Palmerston, Secretary of State for War, she states that while a prisoner in the hands of the Americans in 1776, she was promised restoration to her husband on condition that he consented to be neutral in the war. Her answer is not recorded, but she was released in a few days. Lilley Robinson proceeded, not to join her husband, but to start on a painful journey of 800 miles, accompanied by her two small children, to her father's family in Virginia, traveling mostly by night to escape the vigilance of American scouting parties and enduring indescribable sufferings. In May, 1778, Colonel Robinson was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the South Carolina Royalists, and in July it was decided that this corps should consist of eight companies of 50 rank and file each. With this regiment he was present at the battle of Stono, 12 June, 1779. Lilley, who had returned to South Carolina from Virginia, accompanied her husband when the British evacuated Charleston. They moved to East Florida, where they intended to settle, only to find that the Colony had been ceded to Spain and they would be included in the 10,000 Loyalists of that Province who suffered. The harassed Robinson family, in common with many others from the Southern Colonies, now sought refuge in the West Indies, but once their ship wrecked off the coast of Florida. Eventually, however, Colonel Joseph Robinson and his family reached Jamaica, but after a year's sojourn there, they sought a home in a northern clime because the Jamaican climate was so unhealthy. They set sail for the asylum of so many American Loyalists, New Brunswick, where they lived for three years until 1789, when Colonel Robinson was invited to settle at Charlottetown in Prince Edward Island by his friend, Colonel Edmund Fanning, Lieutenant-Governor of Prince Edward Island and former commanding officer of the Loyalist Corps. Meanwhile, Colonel Robinson had been put on the list of seconded Provincial officers and received the half-pay of a lieutenant-colonel. He was also relieved of anxiety by the grant of £521 from his claim of £1,618. 10s for the loss of his property in South Carolina and by his appointment as surrogate and judge of probate at Charlottetown. This South Carolina Loyalist died in that city, 24 August, 1807, leaving a will in which he bequeathed property to his widow, Lilley, and his three daughters. Lilley Robinson died at Charlottetown, 11 July, 1823. Elizabeth, the eldest daughter born in New Brunswick in 1788, died unmarried. One daughter, Rebecca, married Robert Hodgson, lieutenant in the Prince Edward Island Fencibles (reduced in 1802), member of the Legislature and speaker until his death, 5 January, 1811, when he left four sons and one daughter.

Richard Richardson – He was born about 1704 in Jamestown, VA to a very respected family. He had the best education he could have at the time. He became a land surveyor. He married Elizabeth Mary Cantey (1722-1767) and they had 7 children. He married Dorothea "Dorothy" Sinkler (1737-1793/95) in 1767 and they had 4 children. He moved to Craven County, SC in 1725 where he was a farmer. He petitioned in 1744 for his first grant of land, between Halfway Swamp and Jack's Creek, where he developed the plantation later to become Big Home.
An early plantation owner in the area, he was a Commissioner of St. Mark's Episcopal Church who donated land for its construction. He was magistrate . He was Colonel of Militia as early as 1757 and was in command of a regiment in the Cherokee War of 1760 - 1761. Few men played a more important part in the provincial history of South Carolina. He was repeatedly a member of Assembly, a delegate to the Provincial Congress of Jan 1775. He was a delegate to the Convention that framed the State Constitution in 1776. December 22, 1775 at Cane Break, South Carolina, following the truce that resulted from the Battle of Ninety Six, a group South Carolina militia and newly raised Continentals, commanded by Col. Richard Richardson and Col. William Thompson, moved into the region between the Broad River and Saluda River. Their purpose was to break up the Loyalists that were gathering there. Richardson and Thompson was soon joined by 700 North Carolina militia commanded by Col. Thomas Polk and Col. Griffith Rutherford, and 220 Continental regulars commanded by Col. Alexander Martin. All these American forces added up to a total amount of 4,000 troops. On December 22, the Americans attacked and the Loyalists resistance quickly collapsed. Richardson's men managed to capture some Loyalist leaders, including Thomas Fletchall. There was a single Tory unit that did not disband with the initial assault, but they were soon routed by part of Richardson's command. He was a member of the Legislative Council in Mar 1776. He was in command of the militia and regulars in the famous "Snow campaign", named for the heavy snows that fell that winter, against the Tories at Ninety-Six, in the winter of 1775. The Spartan Regiment and other patriots were under Col. Richard Richardson at Ninety Six. He assisted in the defeat of the British Fleet at Charleston in 1776 and was appointed Brigadier General March 25, 1778 where he commanded the State militia at Purrysburg, in Dec. 1778. At the surrender of Charleston in 1780 he was taken prisoner and paroled. He served under Lincoln at Charleston. He was dragged from his home and made to ride a horse behind a trooper back to Charleston where he was held prisoner. Cornwallis offered him titles and offices under the Crown, or close confinement and he turned Cornwallis down and chose confinement. He was seventy-six years old. Due to his age and the conditions of imprisonment, his health began to fail. When it was obvious he was dying he was sent home and soon died in September, 1780 at Big Home, Salisbury, Clarendon Co., SC. He was buried in the Richardson cemetery near his home. After Banastre Tarleton gave up his attempt to catch the Swamp Fox, he paid a visit to Richardson's plantation. Highly angered that General Richardson's widow had enabled Marion to escape by alerting him to the approach of the British cavalrymen, Tarleton sought retribution. Tarleton took over the residence and it's a legend that General Richardson was disinterred and his body left exposed and Tarleton forced the family to witness it. Then he was re-interred. Tarleton supposedly said he wanted to see the features of a man of such character but he really thought the family treasures might have been buried with him. What Tarleton couldn't take with him was burned and destroyed and the slaves dispersed. Tarleton, himself, put the torch to the house intending to burn the young widow and 3 of their young children. One of the officers took pity and saved their lives with a few articles of clothing. The widow and children had to survive on secret and voluntary gifts by a few servants. They would collect food by day and go out by night to take them to the little family.

Andrew Williamson (c. 1730-Mar. 21, 1786) came to America from Scotland as a young child. He was illiterate, but very intelligent. He became a skilled frontier man. He probably began his career as a cow driver. On 9/22/1760, he was commissioned lieutenant in the South Carolina regiment which served in James Grant's expedition against the Cherokee. He had a plantation named "Whitehall", six miles west of Ninety Six in what is now Greenwood County. He had several holdings on Hard Labor Creek of the Savannah. Here he lived with his wife, Eliza Tyler, of Virginia, by whom he had two sons and two daughters. In 1768, with Patrick Calhoun and others, he voiced the needs of the back country in a petition for courts, schools, ministers of the gospel, and public roads. In 1770 he was named to lay out and keep in repair a road to his plantation. He was so influential in the back country and so sound a Whig, that he was elected to the first provincial congress and was a Major in the militia and awarded a contract to supply the troops. Appointed to enforce the Association in his district, he was summoned with the militia to support W. H. Drayton against the Loyalists, and for the capture of the well known Loyalist, Robert Cunningham, he received the thanks of the provincial congress. Besieged by the Loyalists in Ninety Six, he signed the treaty with them on Nov. 21, 1775 but was in the "Snow Campaign" of December which continued the civil war. In 1776 he led the panic-stricken militia on his second Cherokee expedition. The Cherokees attacked several settlements along the frontier and killed many settlers in July 1776. Promoted to colonel, he commanded 2,000 South Carolina troops. Captain Andrew Pickens led militiamen from the Long Canes in Williamson's expedition to burn the Lower Cherokee towns in northern South Carolina. The settlements of Essenecca (Seneca), Tomassee, Jocassee, Estatoe, Tugaloo, Brass Town, Cane Creek, Chehohee, Qualhatchee, Toxaway, Chittitogo, Sugar Town, Keowee, and others were destroyed. Williamson was ambushed at Essenecca his horse was shot under him. Andrew Pickens was leading a detachment of 25 men to destroy Tamassee when they were attacked by a large Cherokee force estimated at over 150 men and surrounded in an open field. The militiamen formed a small circle and fired out at the surrounding Indians in what came to be called the "Ring Fight." Pickens won the fight after being reinforced. Following the destruction of the Lower Cherokee towns, Williamson conducted a campaign into Georgia and North Carolina to destroy the Cherokee Valley Towns. Andrew Pickens was elected major for this expedition. Williamson's forces fought five battles with the Cherokees and destroyed 32 towns and villages in the Lower and Valley settlements. Williamson received the unanimous thanks of the Assembly and on May 20, 1777, signed the treaty which took from the Indians a large land cession. A popular officer, attentive to the comfort of his men, Williamson was promoted to brigadier-general in 1778 and commanded the South Carolina militia in Robert Howe's Florida expedition, sharing the blame for its failure. Major Pickens served in General Williamson's army in 1778 in the failed attempt to take British St. Augustine in Florida. In the spring of 1778, he was appointed colonel of the Regiment of Ninety Six South Carolina Militia. The British occupied Augusta and were recruiting loyalist troops in the western piedmont when Andrew Pickens' militia surprised and defeated a loyalist force of 700 men gathered at Kettle Creek about 50 miles northwest of Augusta. The British were forced to withdraw from Augusta and serious efforts by them to control the back country were suspended until the fall of Charleston in 1780. After Charleston was surrendered to the British, Andrew Pickens, along with many other rebel leaders accepted parole and British rule. Brigadier-General Andrew Williamson, with three hundred men, was now encamped near Augusta. Although composed of militia, this was, numerically considered, the most formidable force then assembled at a single point for the defense of republican Georgia. While encouraging Colonel Clarke with the suggestion that he would accede to a concentration of forces and unite in the suppression of the Royalists in Upper Carolina, he held the king's protection in his pocket and meditated an act of infamy. Unable either to read or write, ho entrusted the details of his command to his aid-de-camp, Malcolm Brown, who had long given evidence of his attachment to the royal cause. Concealing for some time the information he had received of the fall of Charlestown, he subsequently, upon the approach of the British detachments, called his officers together, facing sure defeat, Brigadier General Andrew Williamson explained the options: surrender or flee north to join others still fighting for freedom. With Colonel Pickens looking on, Williamson asked for a show of hands of those who wanted to retreat and fight again. Demoralized by the recent British victories, "only Captain James McCall and Captain Moses Liddle and three or four of their militiamen held up their hands" The remainder of the Regiment, including Colonel Pickens, voted for surrender. On June 10, Williamson and Pickens surrendered their forces to Captain Richard Pearis who commanded the first Loyalist army to arrive. Pearis soon paroled the Whig leaders and militiamen and asked only that they give their word not to take up arms against England again. Among others, Captain James McCall and Private William Speer apparently took their rifles and fled to North Carolina at this time. Williamson thereupon abandoned his command. After the fall of Charleston in 1780 he determined the American cause for independence was lost so he turned to the British to protect his large landholdings. He unresistingly laid down his arms and took Royal protection when he saw the British victorious in Charleston. He is called the "Arnold of Carolina" or the "Southern Arnold". He regarded himself a faithful American and even provided military information to General Greene while he was inside British lines. On July 5, 1781 Colonel Isaac Hayne made an incursion to the Quarter House, a precinct within five miles of Charleston, and captured General Andrew Williamson. It was feared that Williamson would be hanged as a traitor, and the British commandant at Charleston, Colonel Nesbit Balfour, ordered out his entire force in pursuit. Major Thomas Fraser and 90 dragoons rescued him. On July 8th, Fraser surrounded the Hayne's camp at Horseshoe and killed 14 men. Hayne was captured, taken to Charleston, thrown into the provost's prison, and after a brief examination before a board of officers, without trial or examination of witnesses, was sentenced to be hanged by the joint orders of Colonel Balfour and Lord Rawdon. Hayne protested against this summary proceeding, which was illegal whether he was regarded as a British subject or a prisoner who had broken his parole. The citizens of Charleston united in petitioning" for his pardon, but the court was inexorable. A respite of forty-eight hours was allowed him in which to take leave of his orphan children, for his wife had lately died, and at the end of this time he was hanged. I wonder how Williamson felt?

Lt. Col. Richard Henry "Lighthorse Harry" Lee (1/29/1756-3/25/1818) was the son of Maj. Gen. Henry Lee II (1730–1787) of "Leesylvania" and Lucy Grymes (1734–1792) the "Lowland Beauty". His family was very well connected in the Virginia elite. Thinking of a legal career, he graduated (1773) from The College of New Jersey (now Princeton), but, soon afterwards, on the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, he became an officer in the revolutionary forces. His skill as a horseman, as well as his temperment, made him a natural cavalryman. He soon was commissioned as captain in the fifth group of Virginia Light Dragoons and sent north to join the Continental Army. Leading his men on lightning raids against enemy supply trains, Harry attracted the attention and admiration of General George Washington and was rapidly promoted. In a surprise attack at Paulus Hook, New Jersey, he captured 400 British soldiers with the loss of only one man. His adroit horsemanship soon earned him the nickname "Light Horse Harry." When the military theatre shifted, he enjoyed equal success in the Southern Department. Lee showed a masterly command of guerrilla tactics in his use of this force, harassing the British both on the march and in camp. Between April 8–13, 1782, at "Stratford Hall", he married his second-cousin, Matilda Ludwell (1766–1790), who was known as "The Divine Matilda". Matilda bore three children before she died in 1790. In 1780-81 he operated in the Carolinas in support of General Nathanael Greene and his Army of the South in the Carolinas, covering, by his ceaseless stinging forays against the British, Greene's retreat across North Carolina to Virginia. Lee resigned his commission because of ill health in 1781. On 6/13/1793, Henry Lee married the wealthy Anne Hill Carter (17 years his junior) at Shirley Plantation. They had six children, one of whom died in infancy in 1796. Their fifth child, Robert Edward Lee would later gain fame as the Confederate general during the American Civil War. Unfortunately for Lee and his family, he invested large sums in numerous, highly speculative schemes, including partnerships with Aaron Burr and merchant Robert Morris. Lee's handling of his personal finances was notably incompetent, and subjected his family to financial hardship. In 1810, to meet the demands of his creditors and be released from debtor's prison, Lee was forced to sell all of his possessions. Lee wrote the valuable Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department (1812; 3rd ed., with memoir by his son Robert E. Lee, 1869) while in debtor's prison. When the book was finished in 1810, the family moved to Alexandria, where a new life on a modest scale was made possible by a legacy from Ann's father. Harry's eldest son, Henry IV, became master of Stratford. From 1786 to 1788, Lee was a delegate to the Continental Congress, and in the last-named year in the Virginia convention, he favored the adoption of the United States Constitution. From 1789 to 1791, he served in the General Assembly and, from 1791 to 1794, was Governor of Virginia. In 1794, Lee accompanied Washington to help in the suppression of the "Whiskey Rebellion" in western Pennsylvania. Henry Lee was a major general in the U.S. Army in 1798–1800. From 1799 to 1801, he served in the U.S. House of Representatives. On 7/27/1812, in Baltimore, Lee and about two dozen Federalists had taken refuge in the three-story office building on Charles Street. He was helping to resist the attack of a Democratic-Republican mob on his friend, Alexander Contee Hanson, editor of the Baltimore Federal Republican , which had opposed the War of 1812. With the help of Brigadier General John Stricker and other city officials, Lee and the rest surrendered the following day and were escorted to the county jail a mile away. Laborer George Woolslager led a mob that forced its way into the jail and removed and beat the jailed Federalists and Lee over the next three hours. One Federalist, James M. Lingan, died. Lee suffered extensive internal injuries as well as head and face wounds, and even his speech was affected. Lee later sailed to the warm West Indies in an attempt to heal his wounds. When he knew he was dying he tried to make it back home but died at "Dungeness" on 3/25/1818 (Dungeness was built on Cumberland Island, GA by Nathanael Greene as a summer home).

Colonel Thaddeus Kosciusko (pronounced Kos-choos-ko) (1746-1817) son of Ludwik and Tekla Kosciuszko. He attended school in Lubieszow and then the Cadet Academy in Warsaw before continuing his engineering studies in Paris, France. He offered his services to the colonists in the American Revolution because of his commitment to the ideal of liberty. Arriving in America in 1777, he took part in the Saratoga campaign and advised Horatio Gates to fortify Bemis Heights. Later he fortified (1778) West Point and fought (1780) with distinction under Gen. Nathanael Greene in the Carolina campaign. Shortly after arriving in Philadelphia in 1776, Kosciuszko read the Declaration of Independence and was moved to tears because he discovered in this single, concise document everything in which he truly believed. When he discovered that Thomas Jefferson was responsible for drafting the Declaration, he felt compelled to meet him. A few months later, while moving south with the Continental Army, Kosciuszko stopped in Virginia to meet with Jefferson. After a very warm reception, the two men spent the day comparing philosophies and eventually became the best of friends. In the early days of the war, Kosciuszko helped to fortify the Philadelphia waterfront at Fort Mercer. Shortly after, he was transferred to New York, where he helped with fortifications along the Hudson and planned the defense for Saratoga. The Battle of Saratoga became known as one of military history's most famous struggles for independence and proved to be a turning point in the war. In 1778, Kosciuszko was made chief engineer of West Point, New York. This fortification became known as the American Gibraltar because it was unable to be penetrated by the British Army. Eventually West Point became a military academy, as suggested by Kosciuszko to General George Washington. During the Seige of Ninety Six in SC on May 22- June 18, 1781, he convinced Patriot General Greene to set siege to the Loyalist held Star Fort. Kosciuszko reasoned that when the Star Fort fell so would the Loyalist held town and Stockade Fort. Directed a battery for cannon to be dug starting at 70 yards from the Star Fort, but workers were attacked by Loyalists. Directed trenches to be dug starting at 300 yards from the Star Fort. Directed Maham Tower to be built, 30 feet high and 30 yards from the Star Fort. Loyalists attacked the Patriot trenches & Kosciuszko was wounded in "his seat of honor." He left with General Greene. He also provided assistance to General Greene in the establishment of the American camp at the Battle of Cowpens in 1780. In 1783, Kosciuszko was appointed Brigadier General and was awarded the Cincinnati Order Medal by General George Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. Washington also presented Kosciuszko with two pistols and a sword as gifts for his outstanding service to America. After his return to Poland he became a champion of Polish independence. He fought (1792-93) in the campaign that resulted in the second partition (1793) of Poland. In 1794 he issued a call at Kraków for a national uprising and led the Polish forces against both Russians and Prussians in a gallant but unsuccessful rebellion that ended with the final partition of Poland. He was imprisoned, and after being freed (1796) went to the United States and later (1798) to France, where after the fall of Napoleon he pleaded with Alexander I of Russia for Polish independence. He died in Solothurn, Switzerland, and is buried in Wawel Castle, in Krakow, Poland, among the tombs of the Polish Kings. His devotion to liberty and Polish independence have made him one of the great Polish heroes.

Wednesday, March 05, 2008

Persephone Post Surgery

She seems to be doing good!

Battle of Musgrove Mills on Laurens County and Union County, SC

Revolutionary War-era terms to know

Whigs and Tories - the two British political parties during the 17th to 19th centuries. Whigs believed in Constitutional Monarchy and were opposed to absolute rule. Tories supported the Monarchy and the Church of England.

Loyalists - Before the Revolutionary War, Americans considered themselves British colonists and followed British law. Many didn't want to rebel against the English King George. American colonists who remained loyal to the British crown during the Revolutionary War were called Loyalists, Royalists, King's Men, even Tories, and Provincials

Patriots - Those who were tired of being under the tyranny of a monarch and believed in breaking away from England and forming a new country were called Rebels, Whigs, Patriot's, Congress Men, Americans.

The numbers on both sides of the Battle of Musgrove's Mill seem to be in dispute. It is known that the Patriot's were outnumbered 2 to 1 but there is a lot of discrepancy in quoted numbers on both sides.

Key Figures in the Battle of Musgrove's Mill

Isaac Shelby - Shelby was born on December 11, 1750 at North Mountain, near Hagerstown, Maryland, in Frederick (now Washington) County, MD. His father, Evan Shelby, was an emigrant from Wales and his mother was Letitia Cox Shelby. Isaac was brought up to the use of arms and he became used to the dangers and hardships of frontier life at a young age. He received a fair English education, worked on his father's plantation, was occasionally employed as a surveyor, and served as deputy sheriff of the county. He moved to what is now Bristol, Tennessee in 1771 with his father. Evan Shelby served with distinction in the French and Indian War. In 1774, Isaac served as lieutenant in his fathers Fincastle Company at the Battle of Point Pleasant in Lord Dunmore's War, a conflict with British and the Indians. Following that, he explored the territory of Kentucky as a surveyor.

In July 1776, he was appointed by the Virginia Committee of Safety as captain of a company of minutemen. In 1777, Governor Henry made him Commissary of Supplies for a body of militia detailed to garrison frontier posts. He attended the Long Island Treaty with the Cherokees, concluded at Fort Patrick Henry, on July 20, 1 777, at which his father was one of the Virginia commissioners. In 1778, he aided in furnishing supplies for the Continental Army and for the expedition projected by General Mcintosh against Detroit and the Ohio Indians. In 1779 he was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates, but, by the line established between Virginia and North Carolina at this time, he became a resident of North Carolina and he was appointed colonel of the Sullivan County militia, which in 1780 he commanded in guerilla fighting that included Musgrove's Mill, and he led the left center of the American force at King's Mountain and was at the Battle of Cowpens. For his service at King's Mountain, he received the thanks of the legislature of North Carolina with a beautiful sword. In 1781, he served under Francis Marion for the remainder of the War. In 1782, he was a member of the legislature of North Carolina and later served as commissioner to settle claims on the Cumberland River and to lay off soldiers' lands near the site of Nashville.

He moved to Boonsborough, Kentucky, where he married Susanna Hart with whom he had eleven children. They settled near Stanford in Lincoln County, Kentucky where he worked as county surveyor and high sheriff. In 1783, he began building a stone house which he named Traveller's Rest. He completed Traveller's Rest in 1786.

He was a member of the convention which framed the first constitution of Kentucky. Having participated in the separation of the State from Virginia, he was elected the first Governor of Kentucky in 1796. In 1812 when war with England loomed again, Shelby was again elected governor and served another 4 years.

In 1813 and as a Major General of militia, he personally led 4,000 Kentucky volunteers under General Harrison to Detriot. On October 5, 1813, he and his troops marched into Canada. He was then sixty-three years of age. At the Battle of the Thames (aka Battle of Moraviatown) near Chatham, Ontario in Upper Canada, on the Thames River, he served under American General William Henry Harrison and led his Kentucky militia. The Americans scored a decisive victory over British General Henry Proctor. Shelby recieved a gold medal for his gallantry and bravery in this battle.

In 1817, President Monroe offered to appoint him Secretary of War, but he declined. In 1818, he was commissioned with General Andrew Jackson to hold a treaty with the Chickasaw Indians for the purchase of lands west of the Tennessee River, which is now known as the Jackson Purchase. In 1819, Shelby became the chairman of the first board of trustees of Centre College. Shelby was partially paralyzed in 1820 by a stroke. On July 18, 1826, another stroke killed Shelby while he was at his home Traveller's Rest. No less than nine counties in as many States have been named after him as well as a number of towns.

Elijah Clarke - was born in 1742, the son of John Clarke of Anson County, North Carolina. He married Hannah Harrington around 1763. As an impoverished, illiterate frontiersman, he appeared in the ceded lands, on what was then the northwestern frontier of Georgia, in 1773.

Clarke's name appears on a petition in support of the king's government in 1774. However, he subsequently joined the rebels and, as a militia captain, received a wound fighting the Cherokees in 1776. The following year, he commanded militia against Creek Indian raiders. As a lieutenant colonel in the state minutemen, Clarke received another wound at the Battle of Alligator Bridge, Florida. Then on February 14, 1779, as a lieutenant colonel of militia, Clarke led a charge in the rebel victory at Kettle Creek, Georgia. All of Georgia and most of South Carolina fell to the British in 1780. Elijah Clarke and thirty men passed through the Native American lands to continue the fight in the Carolinas. As a partisan, Clarke led frontier guerrillas in inflicting a heavy toll against the British and American Loyalists at Musgrove's Mill, Cedar Springs, Wofford's Iron Works, Augusta, Fishdam Ford, Long Cane, and Blackstocks. He was not present at King's Mountain or Cowpens, but his campaigns were partially responsible for both of those major Patriot victories. Besides receiving several battle wounds, Clarke also survived smallpox and the mumps during the Revolution. The state of Georgia rewarded his services with a plantation. He also obtained thousands of acres of land grants, some by questionable methods, and participated in the notorious Yazoo land fraud of the 1790s.

Clarke served in the state assembly from 1781 to 1790. However, Clarke grew impatient with the failures of the national and state government to bring peace to the frontier and took matters into his own hands. He tried to form an independent republic, known today as the Trans-Oconee Republic, by seizing Creek lands on the Oconee frontier. At least twice, he became involved in plots to invade neighboring Spanish East Florida.

Disenchanted with a settled Georgia, discredited, and almost bankrupt, Elijah Clarke died in Augusta on December 5, 1799.

James Williams - was born in 1740 in Hanover County, Virginia. He was orphaned before he was 12 years old and moved in with his brother, John Williams, a lawyer in Granville County, SC, who gave him a good education. James settled on the James River in Ninety-Six district of SC in what is now Laurens County, SC. American pioneer, farmer, and miller before he became a Captain, Lt. Colonel, then Colonel, in his area's regiment of militia. He was a Patriot from the beginning. He led bodies of local men into action in 1775 at the seige at Fort Ninety-Six in which the first shots of the War were fired in the Carolina upstate, and he was at Briar Creek, Stono Ferry, Savannah, Georgia, and the Battle of Musgrove's Mill. He joined the other units at Cowpens, SC on October 6. The next day he joined them in the major victory at the Battle of King's Mountain. The Americans overwhelmed an 1,100 man force, losing only twenty eight killed, one of whom was Colonel James Williams, killed in action on October 7,1780. He was the highest ranking officer to die from wounds suffered during King's Mountain. It's possible he was killed by friendly fire. He was hastily buried at King's Mountain but was later re-interred on Limestone Street in Gaffney, SC.

Edward Musgrove - Laurens District did not have any navigable waterways, but the crystal-clear streams were filled with fish, a handy food supplement. The bolder streams powered mills for grinding grain and sawing lumber, even enabling rafting and a bit of short distance traveling; and the water-edged lands furnished good breeding grounds for birds and animals. The convenience of water for both man and beast was to be seriously considered in the settlements to be laid out. The names of rivers to be found on old maps and in court house records are Bush, Enoree, Saluda, Little River, and two forks of Reedy River, the last four running nearly parallel with Enoree for a short distance. Among the earliest colonists of upper South Carolina was Edward Musgrove, of British descent, who, prior to the controversy with the mother country, had established a residence described as being about one mile below Head's Ford on Enoree River and less than half a mile from the Cedar Shoals Creek Falls. He had been well educated and trained for law. Major Edward Musgrove owned and operated one of the most noted of the old mills, Musgrove's Mill. The dwelling house was situated on a hill overlooking Enoree River at a point once known as the Horse Shoe Bend, where a long bridge afforded a connection with the opposite shore. Down almost beneath the bridge nestled the small, low-browed mill built of wood. A mill cottage stood close by, erected for the comfort of the miller's guests. The original Musgrove home and the mill were burned by the British in an act of retaliation but they were rebuilt on the same sites. Major Musgrove gave legal advise, wrote up legal papers, was a practical surveyor and was very popular in the area with his neighbors. He was a little taller than medium height and was slender with prematurely gray hair. By the time of the Revolutionary War he was living with his third wife and too old to participate in the War. He tried to stay neutral but his home and mill were soon taken over by British and Loyalists

His first wife gave him a son, Beaker Musgrove. His second wife gave him two daughters, Mary and Susan. Both girls were known beauties but they died young of consumption within a year of each other and just a 1-2 years after the War. They were unmarried. Major Edward Musgrove died in 1792 at 76 years of age.

Alexander Innes - Was secretary to Lord William Campbell, Governor of SC, before his appointment as Inspector General of the Provincial Forces In America in 1777. In 1779 he was given command of the SC Royalists. He was described as so haughty and supercilious that he estranged more citizens from the King than all the other blunders put together. Provincials received their clothing from the Inspector General of Provincial Forces and were mustered by the Muster Master General. In America, those gentlemen were Colonel Alexander Innes and Colonel Edward Winslow, respectively.

On August 7, he engaged Clarke at Wofford Ironworks in an ineffectual skirmish. He was then injured in the Battle of Musgrove's Mill. The British had a garrison at Fort Prince, not far west of the present site of Spartanburg in the Landrum/Tryon area. When news of the fight at Gowen's Fort reached Colonel Alexander Innes, the commander of Fort Prince, he sent Major James Dunlap in pursuit of the Patriots, with seventy dragoons and a party of Loyalists.

In 1791 he was back in England and he offered his services to fight France.

Major Patrick Ferguson - was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1744. The 'Bulldog' was thin, wiry, implausibly swashbuckling. His nickname was Pattie and he was gentle, cultured, had a witty sense of humour, wrote verses, cracked jokes and left charming letters to his wife. Brown haired when unpowdered. In the photo above, he is wearing his military queue pinned on top of his head.

In 1756, when Pattie was 12, his father purchased an ensigncy for him in his uncle Colonel James Murray's regiment, the 15th Foot, but it was cancelled, because he was too young to be of service. In 1759, shortly after his fifteenth birthday, Pattie was bought a Cornetcy in the Royal North British Dragoons (Scots Greys). However, he did not join his regiment until 1761. For nearly two years he studied at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich. When he was 17, while serving in Germany, he contracted an illness (possibly TB) that left him with a slightly lame leg and left him prone to arthritis when he overtaxed his leg.

In 1763 he traveled around Britain with his Royal North British Dragoons (Scots Greys) on garrisoning and policing duty. In 1768, he served in the West Indies battling scurvy and learning the fiddle. He bought a sugar plantation there but contracted fever and returned to England in 1773.

Ferguson attended camp in Salisbury in 1775, where he first attracted the attention of Major General William Howe. In 1776, he worked on developing a breech-loading rifle, which he demonstrated to King George III and began working on a small field piece.

In 1777, Patrick Ferguson was given command of an experimental unit and sent to America. In March 1777, Pattie and his corps sailed on the Christopher to New York, where they arrived on 26 May. The experimental field piece blew up in its first test, having been sent out with the wrong size ammunition. However, the corps - uniformed in the green cloth which had been sent out with them - saw some action in New Jersey. They took part in the expedition to the Chesapeake, where Howe, a light infantry enthusiast, was impressed with them.

Ferguson's Corps performed well in the battle, fighting alongside the Queen's Rangers, under James Wemyss. Pattie had the chance to pick off a important-looking Rebel officer, but declined to do so for reasons of honour. He was later told in hospital that the officer may have been Washington, but this has not been proved. Moments after the alleged encounter with Washington, a musket ball shattered Pattie's right elbow-joint. He spent the winter in Philadelphia, recuperating. He nearly lost his arm in amputation. He endured numerous unanaesthetised operations to remove bone splinters which repeatedly broke open his wounds. In November, he also received news of his father's death the previous June. He was never again able to wield his limbs as before. His right arm was crippled, permanently bent at the elbow: he later received the King's Bounty for its effective loss. He therefore learned to write, fence and shoot left-handed.

It was 13 May 1778 before he was fit to return to duty. Barely a year after he was disabled, he led daring raids against Rebel salt works and privateer bases at Chestnut Neck and Egg Harbor, NJ. Heavy casualties were inflicted on the enemy, but he tried to avoid harming civilians. Early in 1779, Pattie led reconnaissance and mapping missions in New York and New Jersey. In December he was given command of the American Volunteers, made up of New York and New Jersey Loyalists. They set sail on 26 December 1779, landing at Tybee a month later. On 7 February 1780 at Savannah, Clinton formalised Pattie's provincial brevet as Lieutenant Colonel of the American Volunteers. While in Savannah, Pattie drew up designs for refortifying the city.

On 14 March, Pattie was bayoneted through the left arm in a 'friendly fire' incident at MacPherson's Plantation, SC, when Major Charles Cochrane and the British Legion infantry mistook his encampment for that of the enemy. For 3 weeks, he had limited use of his one good arm, but chivalrously forgave Cochrane. During the siege of Charleston, Pattie worked closely with Banastre Tarleton to cut off Rebel supply routes. He was made a Mojor in the 71st Foot. On 22 May, Pattie was appointed Inspector of Militia by Clinton, to recruit and train local Loyalists, a post for which he refused to accept any additional pay. His base for most of that summer was around Fort Ninety-Six. The militia flocked to him, and he began training them to respond to signals from his light infantry silver whistle. He got a new nickname, the Silver Whistle.

Pattie's men had been pursuing Clarke, who defeated Loyal militia at Musgrove's Mill on 18 August. At Winn's Plantation the next day, Pattie learned of the victory at Camden. He then set out to pursue Sumter, but on 21 August learned that Tarleton had surprised and defeated the 'Gamecock' at Fishing Creek. On 23 August, Pattie rode to Camden to get new instructions from Cornwallis. He was to operate on the left flank, detached from the main body of the army: to aid the Loyalists, and forage from and punish the Rebels.

Pattie marched his men up into North Carolina on 7 September. Leaving most encamped, he took 50 American Volunteers and 300 militia towards Gilbert Town and Cane Creek, to surprise McDowell. But McDowell, like Clarke, Shelby and Williams, had withdrawn into the Back Country. Pattie paroled a prisoner to warn these Rebels "that if they did not desist from opposition... he would march his army over the mountains, hang their leaders, and lay their country waste with fire and sword". Shelby passed on the message to Sevier, of the Washington County Militia.

On 1 October, at Denard's Ford, Pattie wrote to Cornwallis that more Rebels were mustering. He began to withdraw towards Charlotte, and wrote to Cornwallis requesting support. The Legion could not be sent out immediately, because Tarleton had been seriously ill with yellow fever or malaria, and was still weak. Instead, Cornwallis ordered Pattie to rendezvous with Major Archibald McArthur and the 71st at Arness Ford. On 6 October, Pattie and his troops set off towards Charlotte, but encamped at King's Mountain (now a National Park), to wait for McArthur's approach. The following afternoon, the Rebel forces surrounded King's Mountain and launched a surprise assault. Incited by Doak's sermon, and by exaggerated reports that Tarleton had 'massacred' Buford's command at Waxhaws in May, their countersign was "Buford". The implication was "No quarter" for Ferguson and his men - or his women. The Loyalist militia, running low on ammunition, began to fall back. Some seventy uniformed American Volunteers bore the brunt of the fighting. They raced from one side of the mountain to the other, making bayonet charges that thrice succeeded in driving back the Rebels - but only briefly. Pattie was in the thick of the action, sword in hand, riding to the weakest points of the line to rally his men, signalling with his famous whistle. Two horses were shot from under him. He took a third. It was a grey: his career had come full circle. Knowing that there was scant hope of quarter, he swore he "never would yield to such a damn'd banditti". With two other mounted militia officers, Colonel Vezey Husbands and Major Daniel Plummer, he led a last, desperate attempt to break the enemy line, and, sword drawn, spurred his horse forward - into a blaze of rifle-fire. Husbands was killed outright, Plummer badly wounded. Pattie himself was a conspicuous target, with his sword in his left hand, his bent-up right arm, and a checked duster-shirt protecting his uniform. A massive volley blasted him from the saddle. About a dozen balls shattered his body. His foot caught in the stirrup of his horse as he fell, and he was dragged along the ground. He died within minutes, in the arms of his friends being the only British to fall as all his other men were Loyalists. Jubilant Rebels stripped and urinated on his corpse, before his orderly Elias Powell and other companions were allowed to bathe and shroud him in a raw beef-hide. He was buried in a shallow grave. The rest - nearly 700 men, including walking wounded-were marched off as prisoners. Along the way, they were ill-used, even hacked with swords. Campbell had to order his officers to "restrain the disorderly manner of slaughtering and disturbing the prisoners". News of Pattie's death reached his family about 10 days before Christmas. He is still buried at King's Mountain.

Thomas Fraser - Fraser was a native of SC, a brother of Major Charles Fraser, the head of Military Police in Charleston, SC. A respectable young man named McLochlin was hacked to death with swords by British Dragoons under Major Thomas Fraser. According to Fraser, later, McLochlin had discharged his pistol once at Fraser and had jumped a fence and turned and fired a second time. The bullet lodged in his saddle. Loyalists numbering 450 men commence an uprising and were to be reinforced by 200 dragoons commanded by Major Thomas Fraser. Fraser moved his men undetected until his force fell victim to a Patriot ambush just short of his objective. Three successive volleys of musket fire by the Patriots severely mauled the ranks of the dragoons. Only the shortage of ammunition among the Patriots saves the dragoons, who lost half their force in the skirmish. Major Fraser also attacked Francis Marion at Fairlawn and was defeated by the sharpshooters hidden behind the low lying branches of cedar trees. Fraser couldn't force his horses through the thick branches and could not pursue so he retreated. In retreating he came upon Marion's baggage and took it claiming a victory.

After the War, he stayed in SC without resigning his British commission. He was not favorably thought of by his fellow Carolinians and he continued to draw his British pension. He married and engaged in the lumber business establishing mills along the Edisto River but this didn't seem to prosper so he became a commission merchant in Charleston, SC.

Musgrove Mills

The Battle of Musgrove Mills took place in what is now southern Spartanburg County on the border of Union and Laurens Counties near Clinton, SC.

A prosperous and influential settler of the Carolina backcountry, Edward Musgrove acquired his land by 1774. It was on this site that Edward built a typical plantation, with house and various other outbuildings. Edward Musgrove had been in the backcountry long enough to experience the brutality of frontier warfare, being involved in the Cherokee Wars and the Regulator Movement.

“So you see I have interfered on neither side, only so far as you might have expected me, which I would not have come short of by any means. If I was to undertake, I would be very sorry to fail in the matter; therefore it is wisdom to balance everything in the right scale.”

Excerpt from a 1775 letter from Edward Musgrove to William Henry Drayton signifying his neutrality.

After the major American defeat to the southeast at Camden, SC on August 16, 1780, southern Patriots needed a morale boost. It would come just two days later at the Battle of Musgrove Mill.

On August 17, 1780, Patriots Col. Elijah Clark, Col. Isaac Shelby and Col. James Williams with 200-700 mounted men (from Georgia, the over-mountain settlements from western NC and Tennessee, and South Carolina) rode from Col. Charles McDowell’s camp on Smith's Ford on the Broad River to attack loyalists at Musgrove's Mill, 40 miles away. It was necessary that the affair should be conducted secretly and quickly. They wanted to break-up a British campsite there. Musgrove's property was desirable real estate for the British. The ford across the Enoree River could provide crossing, the gristmill on the property could provide food for hungry soldiers, and its location provided a convenient and recognizable gathering place for the British. As early as August 8, 1780, the British were sending their wounded to the home of Edward Musgrove, and by August 10th, a camp had been established there. So Shelby's force left General McDowell's camp on the 18th of August, a short time before dark. They traveled on through the woods until dark, and then fell into the road and proceeded on all night, passing within three or four miles of Ferguson's camp, and going beyond it to the Tory camp at Musgrove's Mill. Riding horseback over 40 miles in one night was pushing it but they did it.

Early that morning they took a citizen prisoner who told them that the Tories had been strengthened and they were far outnumbered facing about 500-1500 British regulars and Loyalist militiamen. To attack the camp would have been suicide but retreat was out too because at the same time the Tory patrol saw the advance of Shelby's men and they squirmished with the sound of gun fire reaching Musgrove Mill's. Both sides suffered wounded, and the Loyalist's lost between one and seven killed. The firing alerted Lieut. Col. Alexander Innes and Major Thomas Fraser who were staying in the Musgrove's residence nearby.

A council was held, and rather than wait for a patrol of 100 mounted who had gone out a short while earlier, it was decided to attack the rebels immediately, who meanwhile had moved to a wooded ridge about a half mile from the mill. The Loyalists had, the previous night, been reinforced from Fort Ninety-Six with 200 Provincials under Lieut. Col. Alexander Innes, and another 100 Loyalists recruits for Ferguson. Innes' reinforcement included a detachment of New Jersey Volunteers under Captain Peter Campbell, a company from 1st Bttn. Delancey, under Captain James Kerr, plus 100 mounted men of Innes’ own South Carolina Royalists. Some accounts speak of some New York Volunteers also being present. The original garrison there was under the command of Maj. Thomas Fraser of the South Carolina Royalists. Present also were Capt. Abraham DePeyster of Ferguson’s corps, and Capt. David Fanning, and Col. Daniel Clary head of the Loyalists of that region. Another hundred, apparently all or mostly Loyalist militia, were out patrolling. Maj. Patrick Ferguson with a sizable force was not many miles away to the east. Innes left 100 of his men to guard his camp, and went to attack Shelby and Clark with the rest, not counting the 100 out patrolling. The men, though better soldiers and attired in redcoats, were apparently not British regulars. They were recruited and trained in this country...Loyalists...Provincials.

While the Tories were forming, Patriots Shelby and Clark had their men build an impromptu redoubt of logs in some thirty minutes and secured their horses. Shelby devised a scheme to lead the British into an ambush. He divided his army into three commands. On the right wing, he chose Lieutenant Colonel Elijah Clark and his Patriot militia from Georgia. At the center, he chose Lieutenant Colonel James Williams. Shelby chose himself to lead the left wing. Then Patriot Capt. Shadrack Inman led a party of 16-25 sharpshooters to lure Innes' force into an ambush. The stratagem, proposed by Inman, succeeded. The British responded, formed ranks and followed Inman and his men into the ambush shouting "Huzzah to King George". But they received deadly fire at point-blank range from the breastwork.

The Provincials and Loyalists attempted to take the backcountry men. The British retreated and regrouped for another attack. During the second attack, the Patriot's wavered but rallied and then the British leader of the Tories was shot from his horse. The redcoated provincial troops began to fall back. This caused the other less seasoned Tories to waver in confusion and allowed the Americans to take the initiative. It became a rout and only ended when the fleeing Tories reached and crossed the Enoree River leaving behind over 200 prisoners. In disorder they fled, but, during the last of the fighting, Patriot Capt. Shadrack Inman, was killed.

While consulting, a messenger arrived from General McDowell, bringing a letter from Gov. Caswell to McDowell, informing him of Gates' disastrous defeat at Camden, and advising all officers commanding detachments to retreat, or they would be cut off. Being informed of Camden and that Ferguson was nearby, the Americans decided to retreat with their prisoners and reportedly missed being caught by Ferguson by less than 30 minutes. The Whigs mounted and headed northeast toward North Carolina. The Redcoat prisoners were distributed one for each three Americans who alternated riding double with the enemy. Each prisoner was forced to carry his rifle or musket, with the flint removed so that it could not fire. They avoided the roads and moving as quickly as possible. They traveled all that day and the night, without rest, and continued their march the next day. Although they had thus been marching, riding and fighting incessantly for forty-eight hours, the strength and energy of their commander permitted his troops no rest because they could lose everything by delay. Halting, only to feed their horses, the line of march resumed. They were thus able to reach the safety of McDowell’s camp at Smith’s Ford.

The time of service of the men having expired, and there being no opportunity of doing any immediate active duty by a partisan corps, when they reached the road which led to Col. Shelby's residence, he and the men from his neighborhood returned home; the prisoners being left in charge of Colonel Clarke. After going some distance, Col. Clarke in like manner returned home, giving the prisoners in charge of Col. Williams, who conducted them to Hillsborough.

The action as a whole, from the approach of Innes to the retreat of his forces to the Mill lasted about an hour. According to Draper, the British lost 63 killed, 90 wounded, 70 prisoners. Other reports of 200 prisoners. The back-country men lost 4 killed and 8 or 9 wounded. Much of the disparity in losses is attributed to the Provincials and Loyalists over shooting their targets. Following the battle Clark, Shelby and Williams withdrew in a northwesterly direction, traveling 60 miles, to re-join McDowell (there with about 200) at Smith's Ford. In their flight, they came within five miles of Ferguson. Ferguson pursued, but was unable to catch up with partisans.

My Pictures of Musgrove Mills State Park

Looking down towards the river from the visitor's center.

Stan walking down towards the Mary Musgrove monument and the Enoree River on the trail.

Mary Musgrove's monument.

The Enoree River

The picnic area by a pond.

This was by the picnic grounds by the pond. Wonder what it was?

The Park Ranger was very helpful.

Dad has this book and we've read it.

We drove to Horseshoe Falls on Cedar Shoals Creek not far from the Visitor's Center. It' is wheelchair accessible.

Me at the Horseshoe Falls.


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