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Thursday, March 05, 2020

Johann Peter Hedrick

I've been working through this line for a week so I wanted to post what I've been able to put together. It doesn't help that the names are repeated over and over again in the lines and that the name is spelled so many different ways. I easily got confused.



Johann Peter Hedrick was born 4/17/1710 in Oberalben, Ulmet Parish, Pfalz, Bavaria, HRE (Holy Roman Empire) (what is now Germany) to Johann Adam Hedrick (DOB 2/9/1654 in Ulmet, Pfalz, Bavaria; DOD 1/17/1730 in Oberalben, Ulmet Parish, Pfalz, Bavaria, HRE) and Anna Elizabeth Faust (DOB 1/20/1674 in Grumbach, Baumholder, Bayern, Germany; DOD Abt 1754 in Oberalben, Ulmet Parish, Pfalz, Bavaria, HRE).

The white shaded area is the area referred to as the Palatinate. I also located the French Alsace and Lorraine area which has been a disputed area between France and Germany for hundreds of years. Look for the ghosted red balloon. That's the general area where the Hedricks were from (you can see maps of the area further in this post). You can see how they would migrate to Amsterdam, taking a ship to England and then on to America.
Why did they immigrate? We need to learn some history because they were right smack dab in the middle of it. Here is what I found on the Internet about the Palatinate history and the immigrations that brought the Hedricks to Pennsylvania and then to North Carolina:

The Palatinate (German Pfalz or Rheinland-Pfaltz) is a name given to a district of Germany, a province of Bavaria, lying west of the Rhine.  It is bounded on the south by Alsace-Lorraine. The word 'paladin,' is derived from the Latin 'palatium,' palace, and was first used in the time of Charlemagne to designate those officials who were concerned with the administration of the finances of imperial lands or who assisted the King in his judicial duties. Some of these officials, instead of remaining near the person of the King, were sent to various parts of the empire to act as judges and governors, the districts over which they ruled being called palatinates. Being in a special sense the representatives of the Sovereign, they were entrusted with more extended power than hereditary counts, and thus later came the word "Palatine," as applied to persons entrusted with special powers, and also to districts over which these powers were exercised. The German counts palatine, with one or two exceptions, soon became insignificant. One exception was the Count Palatine of the Rhine, who became one of the most important lay officials of the empire. The first Count Palatinate of the Rhine was Hermann, 945-996.

Elector Frederick III succeeded in 1459. He was a keen, though not very bigoted, Calvinist; was one of the most active Protestant princes, and was followed, 1583, by his son, Louis IV, who was a Lutheran, and he in turn, 1583-92, by Frederick IV (Frederick the Wise,) who gave every encouragement to the Calvinists.  He was founder and head of the Evangelical Union establishment to combat the aggressive tendencies of the Roman Catholics.  His son, Elector Frederick V, accepted the throne of Bohemia and this brought on the Thirty Years' War.

He was quickly driven from the country and his electorate was devastated by Bavarians and Spaniards. At the Peace of Westphalia, 1648, the Palatinate was restored to Frederick's son, Charles Louis, but was shorn of Upper Palatinate, which Bavaria retained as a prize of war.

Scarcely had the Palatine begun to recover from the effect of the war when it was attacked by Louis XIV, King of France, and for six years, from 1673 to 1679, the electorate was devastated by French troops, and, even after the Treaty of Nizmnegen, it suffered from the aggressive policy of Louis.  Charles Louis, Count Palatinate, died in 1680, and his son and successor, five years after, and Philip William, of another branch, became Elector Palatine, 1685. The French King's brother, Philip, Duke of Orleans, had married Charlotte Elizabeth, sister of the late Elector Charles, whereupon the King, in 1680, had claimed, in right of his brother's marriage, a part of Charles' land.  His troops took Heidelberg while Philip William took refuge in Vienna, where he died, 1690.  By the Treaty of Rhyswick, King Louis abandoned his claim to the Palatinate for a sum of money.

Just before this the Palatinate began to be troubled by religious contentions.  The great mass of the inhabitants were Protestant, while the family which succeeded in 1685 belonged to the Catholic Church.  Philip William, however, gave equal rights to all his subjects, but under his son and successor, the Elector John William, the Protestants were deprived of various civil rights until the intervention of Prussia and Brunswick in 1705, which gave them some redress.  The next elector was Charles Philip, who moved the capital from Heidelberg to Manheim, 1720.  He died, 1742, and was succeeded by his kinsman, Charles Theodore, a prince of refined and educated tastes, and under his long rule his country enjoyed prosperity.  He died, 1799, without sons, and his successor was Maximilian Joseph, who later became King of Bavaria as Maximilian I.  Since 1818, the Palatinate has formed a part of Bavaria.

The German emigrants who came to Pennsylvania between the years 1683 and 1776 were almost entirely from South Germany, especially the Palatinate, Wurtemberg, and from Switzerland. The Palatinate has a history that is not only interesting but most important. Its inhabitants are descendants of the group of German tribes called the Rhein Franken, with an admixture of the Alemanni, the latter of whom had occupied the land until 496 A.D., when Choldowig, King of the Franks, defeated them in a battle fought somewhere on the Upper Rhine.  Situated along the great water highway of Europe, they are said "to combine the best qualities of the North and South, being distinguished for indomitable industry, keen wit, independence and to possess a high degree of intelligence." They were very prosperous and comfortable.

The terrible disorders of the religious wars dealt a deadly blow at this prosperity. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was one of the most destructive in history. Cities, towns, and villages were devastated in turn by the armies of friends as well as of foes, and poverty, hardships, murder and rapine followed in the wake of the strange invaders. At the approach of a hostile army the whole village would take to flight, and would live for weeks in the midst of forests and marshes, or in caves. The enemy having departed, the wretched survivors would return to their ruined homes until the next invasion. Many were slain, many of the young were lured away to swell the ranks of the armies, many fled to cities for safety and never returned to their native villages. The Thirty Years War came to an end in 1648. But then the Catholic Louis XIV of France claimed a portion of the Palatinate. This was opposed by all of Northern Europe. He decided that if the Palatinate was not to furnish supplies to the French it wouldn't supply the Germans. He therefore approved the famous order of his War Minister Louvois to "Brüler le Palatinat."  The scenes that followed far surpassed the horrors of the Thirty Years' War. Near half a million human beings fled while the French burned every village, agriculture destroyed. He wanted to crush it. The war ended, the Treaty of Rhyswick was signed in 1697.

The Plague, the Black Death, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia. The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population. Yersinia pestis causes the disease plague, which takes three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic, and bubonic. All three forms have been responsible for high-mortality epidemics throughout human history. The Black Plague probably originated in East Asia, from where it traveled along the Silk Road, reaching Crimea by 1343 and on merchant ships. The plague recurred as outbreaks until the early 20th century. It was most likely carried by fleas living on the black rats that traveled on merchant ships and then spread with merchant travel and/or with Mongolian raiders.

Next came the religious problems. Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinist Protestants, Swiss Mennonites and Huguenots were at odds with the Catholics being preferred in the Palatinate after the wars.

Not only did these intolerable religious conditions prevail, but the corruption and tyranny, extravagance and heartlessness of the rulers of the Palatinate were an additional affront to an already overburdened and sorely tried people.  While the country was exhausted and on the verge of ruin,
costly palaces were built, enormous retinues maintained; and while pastors and teachers were starving, hundreds of Court officers lived in luxury and idleness.

As early as March 10, 1682, Penn had sold, through his agent, several 5000-acre tracts to merchants of Crefeld, Germany.  In 1683, Francis Daniel Pastorius, as agent for a number of German friends, bought 25,000 acres, and upon these the town of Germantown was soon after located.  This was the beginning of that mighty Teutonic wave of immigration. The principal port of embarkation was Rotterdam, hence to Cowes, in the Isle of Wight. While many of the early German emigrants had, at one time, been well-to-do, the devastations of the Thirty Years' War and the wanton destruction ordered by Louis XIV had reduced to poverty thousands who had been prosperous farmers and tradesmen.  Whatever property they had been able to gather together was used up in their expenses of descending the Rhine and crossing the ocean, or was stolen on the way. The prospective emigrant must transport himself, his family and his goods to the nearest river, which, in the majority of cases, was the Rhine, then the great water highway.  There were then shipped in boats, floating or sailing down stream until they reached Holland, where the final arrangements for the journey must be made.  One-half of the passage money must be paid and additional provisions secured. In Holland, the exiles were put upon ocean-going vessels, either with or without their goods, and the long sea trip began. Traveling by ships was one continual series of discomfort, suffering, disease and death.  The food, even in the best of cases, would give out or spoil, especially if the journey was unusually long.  Sometimes the trip would be made in a few weeks, while at other times months would pass.

There were three general streams of German immigration to Pennsylvania between the years 1683 and 1775.  The first, in 1683; the second from 1710 to 1727, when official statistics began to be published; the third period extended to the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, when all immigration ceased for the time being.

By 1727, the influx of these foreigners into Pennsylvania assumed such proportions that the authorities became alarmed and the Provincial Council adopted a resolution requiring that all masters of vessels importing Germans and other foreigners should, before sailing from the European port, make a list of the names of all passengers, particularly the males over sixteen; though often the names and ages of all passengers, including women and children were set down.  Then, upon reaching Pennsylvania, the foreigners were obliged to sign a declaration of allegiance and subjection to the King of Great Britain and of fidelity to the Proprietary of Pennsylvania. This oath was first taken in the courthouse at Philadelphia, September 21, 1727, by 109 Palatines.  If the emigrant could write, he himself signed his name to the declaration; in the event that he could not write, a clerk signed for him. - Wikipedia and USGWArchives Area History: The Palatinate, the Palatines and the Pennsylvania Germans: by Ralph Beaver Strassburger and from The Strassburger Family and Allied Families of Pennsylvania, by Ralph Beaver Strassburger, 1922,  pp. 19-45.

The situation in 1738 was different. The well over six thousand emigrants heading for North America during that fateful year were not part of a colonization scheme of any government or proprietor. As individuals they banded together in family and often in village groups and set out for Rotterdam or Amsterdam where every year a number of British ships, returning with colonial staples, were available for such transport on their way back to Philadelphia and Charleston. The redemption system by which passengers were taken aboard after merely signing a contract to pay their fares within a designated time after arrival had proven satisfactory to all parties concerned. Thus payment could be made by the passengers themselves in cash or from the proceeds of the sale of goods brought along for that purpose, or by relatives and friends already in America, or, what was becoming increasingly common, by parties to whom they indentured themselves to work off the cost of passage... South Carolina had enacted a law in 1735 which allocated for the three years following all duties levied on the importation of African slaves to "poor Protestants lately arrived in this Province, or who shall come from Europe and settle in this Majesty's new Townships." These funds were to be used for "tools, provisions and other necessarys" for such Protestants. The importers, either Charleston merchants or the captains, as well as the emigrants themselves were allowed cash bounties. This practice had led to a modest but steady human cargo business with Ulster Scots, Swiss and Palatines. Then ship captains returning from Carolina to northern Irish ports and Rotterdam brought back newspaper accounts with the warning that the "sinking Fund" for bounty money was practically exhausted and "will expire in August 1738, after which there is no provision for their support." Rotterdam shipping interests immediately turned away from the Charleston emigrant trade since they were well aware of the fact that the local market for redemptioners in the Carolinas was too limited to make runs worthwhile without the bounty money. Indeed, not a single ship was to bring Swiss and "Palatines" (the common designation for Germans during much of the eighteenth century) to Carolina. The attempt by Samuel Wragg of London, brother of the Palatine importer Joseph Wragg in Charleston, to have the Board of Trade pay for a shipload of Germans to South Carolina was rebuffed.

Although two other southern colonies, Georgia and Virginia, offered prospects, and, on behalf of land speculators, Governor George Clarke of New York had leaflets circulated in Germany which promised in "High Dutch" "to give free 500 acres to each of the first two hundred families from the Palatinate," the Rotterdam shippers turned their attention for the 1738 season to the surest of all markets, Pennsylvania. Despite the transports to Carolina and Georgia, there had been a steady rise of the number of Germans arriving in Philadelphia, 268 in 1735, 736 in 1736, and 1,528 in 1737...

The transit of thousands of "Palatines and Switzers" through the Netherlands had become a major problem for the Dutch authorities ever since the mass migration of 1709 with the ensuing return of thousands from England which lasted into late 1711. The main issue was that of destitute and sick people and of orphans staying behind...

When the first waves of Palatines reached Dutch territory in April 1738, the Rotterdam city authorities enforced an order, passed the preceding year, prohibiting Rhine shippers to unload "all Palatines and other foreigners" within the city limits. Instead they were to take them to a holding area in the vicinity of the ruins of St. Elbrecht's chapel below Kralingen... - THE EMIGRATION SEASON OF 1738-YEAR OF THE DESTROYING ANGELS By KLAUS WUST

Oberalben, Ulmet Parish, Pfalz, Bavaria, HRE (what is now Germany)



Johann Adam Hedrick also married Maria Catherina ? (last name unknown to me)(DOB Abt. 1655 in Oberalben, Ulmet Parish, Pfalz, Bavaria, HRE; DOD 2/12/1693 in Oberalben, Ulmet Parish, Pfalz, Bavaria, HRE).

Here is my relationship:

Johann Adam Hedrick (my 7th great grandfather) and Anna Elizabeth Faust had Johann Peter Hedrick
Johann Peter Hedrick (my 6th great grandfather) and Ann Otillia "Milla" Blum (aka Anna Otillia "Milla" Blinn) had Johann Adam Hedrick
Johann Adam Hedrick and Barbara Maria Hege had Johann Peter Hedrick
Johann Peter Hedrick and Anna Maria Sink had John Peter Hedrick
John Peter Hedrick and Rachel Long had Pernina Jane Hedrick
Pernina Jane Hedrick and William Rankin "Rank" Michael had Addie Mae Michael
Addie Mae Michael and Avery Lawrence Barnes had Vivian Mae Barnes
Vivian Mae Barnes and Oscar Alexander Huneycutt had my Dad, William Avery Huneycutt
William Avery Huneycutt and Eleanor Elaine Reese had ME!

You can see how the names are repeated and thus so confusing. And there are many spelling variations of Hedrick:
Heÿdrich
Heÿdrichs
Hedderich
Hrÿdrich
Heyderich
Heÿderich
Heyderick
Heydrick
Heydrich
Heidrich
Heiderich
Hedrick
Hetrick
Hetrich
Headrick
Hetrich
Hitrich
Hitrick
Hadrich
Hadrick
Hatrick

Johann Peter Hedrick (1710-1788) married Anna Otillia "Milla" Blum or Blinn on 3/18/1732 in Evangelisch, Pfeffelback, Rheinland, Prussia. She was born abt. 1710 in Ruthweiler, Kusel, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany to Hans Wilhelm Blunen (or Hans Wilhelm Blum or Hans Wilhelm Blinn)(DOB 4/2/1669 in ThalLichtenburg, Prussia; DOD 7/10/1733 in Ruthweiler, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany) and Anna Sarah Theis (DOB 2/3/1669 in Ruthweiler, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany; DOD Abt. 1758 in ? ).

Germany, Select Marriages, 1558-1929
Name: Johann Peter Heyderich
Gender: Male
Marriage Date: 18 Mrz 1732 (18 Mar 1732)
Marriage Place: Evangelisch, Pfeffelbach, Rheinland, Prussia
Spouse: Anna Ottilia Blinn
FHL Film Number: 493254, 943254

Germany, Select Marriages, 1558-1929
Name: Johann Peter Heyderich
Gender: Male
Marriage Date: 18 Mrz 1732 (18 Mar 1732)
Marriage Place: Evangelisch, Pfeffelbach, Rheinland, Prussia
Spouse: Anna Ottilia Blinn
FHL Film Number: 493254
Reference ID: 2:1LTRRVC

Ruthweiler, Kusel, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

Ruthweiler is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kusel-Altenglan, whose seat is in Kusel. Ruthweiler lies in the Pfeffelbach valley, also called the Aalbach valley, which here is quite narrow. The village sits on the valley floor at an elevation of roughly 270 m above sea level, and looming above it is the great complex of Castle Lichtenberg (see below), which stretches up to the municipal limit, but actually stands within neighbouring Thallichtenberg’s (see below) limits. In Gallo-Roman times especially, the area was relatively heavily settled. Ruthweiler’s founding date was sometime in the 8th or 9th century, putting it in the time when the Franks were newly settling the land. A holding of the County of Veldenz in the early 12th century, and like all villages in this state, ended up in 1444 under the overlordship of the then newly founded County Palatine of Zweibrücken. Ruthweiler's peasants, like those in other villages in the Burgfrieden, had to do compulsory labour for Castle Lichtenberg. Taxes also had to be paid, to the County Palatine as well as the Wörschweiler Monastery and the Counts of Sickingen. In earlier days, the Ruthweiler villagers earned their livelihoods mainly at agriculture, though even by the Middle Ages and right up until the French Revolution, Castle Lichtenberg also employed compulsory labourers, day labourers, maidservants and menservants. In the course of the Thirty Years' War, though, the wartime ravages and the Plague utterly depopulated the village. Beginning in 1588, Count Palatine Johannes I forced all his subjects to convert to Reformed belief as espoused by John Calvin. The Duke of Saxe-Cobourg decreed the merger of the two Protestant denominations in 1818, and the decision handed down by a synod in Baumholder in 1820 instituted the “complete union” of the two denominations, Lutheranism and Calvinism. It was now a united Evangelical Church of the Principality of Lichtenberg. - Wikipedia

You will notice Johann Peter Hedrick and Anna Ottillia Blinn got married at Evangelisch, Pfeffelbach, Rheinland, Prussia. I would think this might have been the united Lutheran and Calvinist Evangelical Church.

Thallichtenburg, Germany

The Lichtenberg castle was built around 1200 and was owned until 1444 by the counts of Veldenz; after which it fell into the ownership of the new dukedom of Palatinate-Zweibrücken. Under the new rule, Lichtenberg Castle became the administrative seat of Zweibrücken until the move of the administration to Kusel in 1758. The castle remained under the duchy until the dissolution of the Duchy of Zweibrücken in 1792.

The castle was built around 1200 and was owned until 1444 by the counts of Veldenz; after which it fell into the ownership of the new dukedom of Palatinate-Zweibrücken. Under the new rule, Lichtenberg Castle became the administrative seat of Zweibrücken until the move of the administration to Kusel in 1758. The castle remained under the duchy until the dissolution of the Duchy of Zweibrücken in 1792. - Wikipedia
 Thallichtenberg is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kusel-Altenglan, whose seat is in Kusel. The municipality lies in the Kusel Musikantenland in the Western Palatinate. Thallichtenberg lies roughly 300 m above sea level northwest of Lichtenberg Castle (382 m above sea level) in a broad hollow between the Burgberg (“Castle Mountain”) and the so-called Prussian Mountains. Down in the dale, the village site abuts the Pfeffelbach (brook). Lichtenberg Castle is actually made up of two castles, the Oberburg (“Upper Castle”) and the Unterburg (“Lower Castle”). The Upper Castle with its three palatial halls and tall keep was reserved as the lordly living quarters, while the Lower Castle was where the Burgmannen and their families lived. Only later were other buildings built between the two castles, thus making the two separate complexes into one. At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, craftsmen and farmers from the castle area built, shortly before Spanish troops advanced in 1620, the so-called Hufeisenturm (“Horseshoe Tower”) with particularly thick walls that were supposed to stand up even to cannon balls. The castle's entrance was secured by three nested gates. During the expansion work in the open area between the Upper Castle and the Lower Castle, the mighty tithe barn arose, along with a new castle church, extensive administration buildings. - Wikipedia



Johann Peter Hedrick (1710-1788) and Anna Otillia "Milla" Blum had 10 children:
1) Catharina Elisabetha Hedrick (DOB 12/4/1731 in Germany, DOD ? in ? ) married Johann Henrich Decher, Johann Erhard Seckler, Johann Jacob Prass.

2) William Hedrick (DOB Abt. 1732 in Germany; DOD Abt. 1738 in Germany)

3) Johann Peter Hedrick (DOB 12/17/1732 in Bavaria, Germany; DOD 1/24/1798 in Rowan County, NC) married Anna Margaretha Hoerchelradt (aka Anna Margaret Hoerchelradt and Anna Margaret Hoerchelroth)(DOB Abt. 1745 in Lebanon, Lancaster County, PA; DOD 7/17/1800 in Rowan County, NC).

4) Maria Catarina Hedrick (DOB 7/11/1734 in Oberalben, Kusel, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany; DOD 10/13/1734 in Oberalben, Kusel, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany)

5) Anna Maria Hedrick (DOB 2/12/1734 in Oberalben, Bayern, Germany; DOD Abt. 1750 in ? )

6) Johann Jacob Hedrick, Sr. (DOB Abt. 1736 in Schleswig, Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; DOD Abt. 1826 in Hillsboro, Fleming County, KY) married Barbara Salers (DOB Abt. 1750 in ? ; DOD Abt. 1840 in ? ).

7) Johannes Henry Hedrick (DOB 11/23/1736 in Oberalben, Kusel, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany; DOD Abt. 1800 in Greenbrier County, WV) married Elizabeth Conner (DOB 9/1742 in Dublin, Lake County, FL; DOD Abt. 1828 in Greenbrier County, WV). He also married Elizabeth Koontz.

You can see, it was at this point that they immigrated to Pennsylvania as the rest of their children were born in Pennsylvania.

8) Johann Adam Hedrick (DOB 10/12/1741 in East Hanover, Lancaster County, PA; DOD 3/16/1815 in Rowan County, NC) married Barbara Hege (DOB 3/18/1749 in Cocalico, Lancaster County, PA, DOD 12/18/1839 in Lexington, Davidson County, NC).

9) Rosina Hedrick (DOB 1/15/1742 in Lancaster County, PA; DOD ? in ? ) married ?

10) Johann George Hedrick (DOB 9/12/1743 in Lebanon, Lancaster County, PA; DOD Abt. 1819 in Somerset, PA) married ? .

Anna Ottillia Blum Hedrick died about 1758 in Lancaster County, PA. Johann Peter Hedrick (1710-1788) then married Phillipina Strivens (DOB Abt. 1735 in Page County, VA; DOD Abt. 1778 in Lancaster, Lancaster County, PA). They had:

1) John Henry Hedrick (DOB Abt. 1761 in ? ; DOD ? in ? ) married ?

2) John Adam Hedrick (DOB 7/4/1763 in Lancaster County, PA; DOD 2/8/1845 in Indiantown Gap, Lebanon County, PA)  married Susannah "Susan" Sophia Freeman (DOB 2/20/1769 in ? ; DOD 6/25/1855 in PA).

3) Phillip Hedrick (DOB 5/19/1766 in Lancaster County, PA; DOD 9/2/1845 in ? ) married ?

4) Anna Barbara Hedrick (DOB 3/2/1776 in Lancaster County, PA; DOD 5/1842 in Lebanon County, PA) married Matthias Greenawalt (DOB 10/17/1767 in ? ; DOD 11/2/1808 in Lebanon County, PA)

Phillipina Strivens died about 1778 in Lancaster County, PA. Johann Peter Hedrick (1710-1788) then married his third wife, Anna Catharina Hummel (DOB 2/26/1715 in ? ; DOD 12/6/1793 in Lancaster County, PA). He married her on 12/12/1780 in Lancaster County, PA and divorced her on 2/5/1783 in Lancaster County, PA. No children.

Johann Peter Hedrick is the immigrant to the United States. He arrived in America on the ship Robert and Alice (some say it is Robert and Oliver because the handwriting is hard to decipher, see below) on September 11, 1738 at the Port of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. The ship, with 106 men and 53 women, came from Rotterdam via Dover, England.

Passenger List 55A names Palatine passengers - Peter, Gerit, Adam, Jan Jurich, and Christopher Hedrick. The ship came from Rotterdam via Dover England to Philadelphia, PA according to List 55A sworn to on 11 Sep., 1738, by the ship's Master Walter Goodman. The passengers numbered 106 men and 53 women. Source - Straseburger's Pennsylvania German Pioneers, Vol. I, page 212.

U.S. and Canada, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s
Name: Peter Heyderich
Arrival year: 1738
Arrival Place: Pennsylvania
Primary Immigrant: Heyderich, Peter
Family Members: Wife Anna Ottilia Blinn; Child Johann Peter; Child Anna Maria; Child Johannes
Source Publication Code: 1031.9
Annotation: Date and port of arrival or date and place of naturalization. Span indicates period between last mention of emigrant in country of origin and first mention of his residence in the New World. Surname, indicates a variation of a surname.
Source Bibliography: BURGERT, ANNETTE KUNSELMAN. Eighteenth Century Emigrants from German-Speaking Lands to North America. Publications of the Pennsylvania German Society, 16/19. Birdsboro, PA: Pennsylvania German Society. Vol. 1: The Northern Kraichgau. 1983. 461p. Vol. 2: The Western Palatinate. 1985. 405p.
Household Members:
Name
Anna Maria Heyderich  
Anna Ottilia Blinn Heyderich  
Peter Heyderich  
Johann Peter Heyderich  
Johannes Heyderich
Source Citation Place: Pennsylvania; Year: 1738; Page Number: 164

Pennsylvania, Compiled Census and Census Substitutes Index, 1772-1890
Name: Pieter Hedrick
State: PA
County: Philadelphia County
Township: Philadelphia
Year: 1738
Database: PA Early Census Index




The Heydricks located in the East Hanover Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Near Swatara Gap, in the Blue MountainsAbout 12 miles east of Manada Gap is the still more important passage through the Blue Mountains by which the Swatara creek makes its way to the fertile regions below. This gap, at what is called "The Hole in the Mountain," or more commonly "The Hole," is known as Swatara Gap or Tolihaio Gap. There, Johan Peter Heydrich built a block house for his family, which was to be used by friends and neighbors as protection from hostile Indians. (N 40° 27.875 W 076° 30.865 or 18T E 371607 N 4480424).
There is an historical marker at the place marked red. There is a nearby Swatara Trailhead. The green shaded areas are the Blue Mountains. You can see where Swatara Creek runs through the mountains through "The Hole", the Swatara Gap.

The building had been constructed with “Musketry” slots where the guns could be fired without exposure. This was built before the beginning of the French and Indian War, 1754-1763. Fort Swatara was a settler stockaded blockhouse established before the French and Indian War by Captain Peter Hedrick in response to Indian attacks in the area. Captain Frederick Smith and his company were mustered into provincial service early in January, 1756 and on 26 Jan 1756 were ordered to establish a defense or occupy and improve the existing defense at Swatara and Manada. The garrison at both forts was spread between the fort and settlers homes protecting the dwellings and the workers in the field.

The post was probably abandoned in 1758. There is no doubt that Peter had experienced military training before coming to America, because he was quick to organize and train a local guard. He held the ranks of Captain and Lt. Colonel, and his home was known as “Fort Swatara”.

At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, Peter Heyderich, Sr. organized, trained, and outfitted a company of men to be attached to Colonel Timothy Green’s Battalion (Flying Camp) of Lancaster County, PA. He was commissioned as Lt. Colonel and received 60 stands of arms, according to his service record dated Sept. 9, 1776.

Pennsylvania, Revolutionary War Battalions and Militia Index, 1775-1783
Name: Peter Hedrick
Volume: 1
Page: 318



Two of Peter and Milla’s sons Peter Hedrick, Jr. and my ancestor, Johann Adam Hedrick, Sr. moved to what is now Davidson County, NC in about 1755. My ancestor was Johann Adam Hedrick who was born 10/12/1741 in Lancaster County, PA. He served during the American Revolutionary War in the company of Captain Lewis Farmer, PA Rifle Regiment. He enlisted 4/12/1776. His brother, Peter, was in the Salisbury District Militia and then commissioned as a Lt. and rose to rank of Capt. They both settled in Old Rowan County, in what is today, Davidson County, NC.

The Daily News Lebanon PA, 3/8/2006, Pg 21
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The Tribune Scranton, PA, 10/30/1923, Pg 9
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Standard Speaker, Hazleton, PA, 4/29/1955, Pg 10
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The Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia, PA, 4/12/1896, Pg 25
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The Daily News Lebanon, PA, 3/3/1983, Pg 14
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Lebanon Daily News, Lebanon, PA, 7/5/1965, Pg 1
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Lebanon Daily News, Lebanon, PA, 7/11/1999, Pg 3
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Lebanon Daily News, Lebanon, PA, 8/31/1993, Pg 37
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Johann Peter Hedrick died about 1788 in Lancaster County, PA.

FindAGrave.com
Col Johann Peter Hedrick
BIRTH 17 Apr 1710, Germany
DEATH Mar 1788 (aged 77), Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, USA
BURIAL Walmers Church and Cemetery, 25 Coulter Rd, Annville, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, USA (40.429008, -76.549932, 40°25'44.4"N 76°32'59.8"W)
MEMORIAL ID 47510056

Anna Otilia Blum Hedrick
BIRTH 1710, Germany
DEATH 1760 (aged 49–50), Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, USA
BURIAL Unknown
MEMORIAL ID 96302097


Johann Adam Hedrick was born 10/12/1741 in East Hanover, Lancaster County, PA. He and his brother Johann Peter Hedrick moved to Old Rowan County, NC about 1755. He married Barbara Hege.

Barbara Hege (Various spellings: Hege Hagi Hage Hegi Hagey) was born 3/18/1749 in Cocalico, Lancaster County, PA to Hans George Hege (DOB Abt. 1695 in Elxenz, Eppingen, Switzerland to Hans Johan Jacob Hege and Anna Margaretha Steinman; DOD Abt. 1781 in Rowan County, NC) and Anna Eva Frey (DOB 12/30/1718 in Wingen, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France to Johann Peter Frey and Anna Barbara Schmidt; DOD 9/13/1798 in Rowan County, NC).

Elxenz, Eppingen, Switzerland


Wingen, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France


The Freys continued to live near Zurich, in the village of Knonau for several generations,


until the end of the Thirty Years War, when the Edict of Nantes promised peace to the protestants. About 1650 Gregorius Frey migrated with his wife Varena (Oberdorfer) and several small children, north down the Rhine to the town of Wingen, Alsace. Alsace, now a part of France, came at that time under protestant control, and was a more hospitable environment for the anabaptist heretics. Beside the Anabaptists, among the settlers in Alsace were French Huegenots, Calvinists (the Reformed Churches) and Lutherans.

Who were the Anabaptists? Anabaptism originated within the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, the Radical Reformers, founded upon a differing belief of baptism from the Catholic Church. They rejected infant baptism in favor of believer's baptism. Since many of them had been baptized in their infancy, they chose to be rebaptized as believing adults. Hence, their enemies called them anabaptists-"re-baptizers." Since they did not believe in infant baptism, to them an oxymoron, they rejected the concept and therefore didn't consider themselves re-baptized. The Anabaptists were earnestly concerned with the restitution of the true church on an Apostolic model. The Anabaptists considered the state churches beyond reformation. They regarded the Bible as their only rule for faith and life which was considered "radical beliefs" such as:

The believer must not swear oaths or refer disputes between believers to law-courts for resolution, in accordance with 1 Corinthians 6:1–11.

The believer must not bear arms or offer forcible resistance to wrongdoers, nor wield the sword. No Christian has the jus gladii (the right of the sword). Matthew 5:39

Civil government belongs to the world. The believer belongs to God's kingdom, so must not fill any office nor hold any rank under government, which is to be passively obeyed. John 18:36 Romans 13:1–7

Sinners or unfaithful ones are to be excommunicated, and expelled from the sacraments and from intercourse with believers saving that they atone, according to 1 Corinthians 5:9–13 and Matthew 18:15, but no violence is to be practiced against them.

The Anabaptists of central Europe evolved in a time of social and religious chaos. The intensity of the Anabaptist leaders and the radical implications of their teaching led to their banishment from continuous cities. Anabaptists were frequently persecuted starting in the 16th century by both Magisterial Protestants and Roman Catholics, mainly because of their interpretation of the biblical text which put them in opposition with established state church and government. Many of the initial Anabaptist leaders perished in prison or were executed. - Wikipedia, Christianity.comAnabaptists

In 1733, Johan Peter Frey, and his wife, Anna Barbara (Schmidt), set sail from Rotterdam for Philadelphia on the Samuel. With them were children Anna Eva, age 15; Valentin, age 12; Anna Barbara, age 10; Anna Maria, age 8; Hans Peter, age 4; and Christian, age 2.

In Pennsylvania, Peter Frey joined the Moravian Church, and in the 1750s he was among a group of a fifteen men who traveled to North Carolina to purchase land from Lord Granville for a Moravian settlement. The men were welcomed and given lodging by a farmer named Johan Jacob Wagner.

Johann Peter Hedrick moved to Old Rowan County, NC about 1755. He married Barbara Hege.

North Carolina, Index to Marriage Bonds, 1741-1868
Name: Barbary Hageny
Gender: Female
Spouse: Adam Hedrick
Spouse Gender: Male
Bond date: 30 Jan 1769
Bond #: 000125733
Level Info: North Carolina Marriage Bonds, 1741-1868
ImageNum: 003214
County: Rowan
Record #:01 188
Bondsman: David Smith; Gasper Smith
Witness: Tho Frohock

North Carolina, Marriage Index, 1741-2004
Name: Adam Hedrick
Gender: Male
Spouse: Barbary Hageny
Spouse Gender: Female
Marriage Date: 30 Jan 1769
Marriage County: Rowan
Marriage State: North Carolina

North Carolina, Marriage Records, 1741-2011
Name: Adam Hedrick
Gender: Male
Bond date: 30 Jan 1769
Bond Place: Rowan, North Carolina, USA
Spouse: Barbary Hageny
Spouse Gender: Female
Event Type: Bond

They had 10 children:
1) Anna Marie Hedrick (DOB 7/25/1770 in Lexington, Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 10/10/1807 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC) married George Snyder (DOB 7/25/1770 in Old Rowan County, NC; DOD 3/3/1820 in Old Rowan County, NC).

2) Johann George Hedrick (DOB 5/16/1772 in Lexington, Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; 8/22/1844 in Davidson County, NC) married Mary Elizabeth Snider (DOB Abt. 1774 in Old Rowan County, NC; DOD Abt. 1814 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC).

3) Jacob Hagey Hedrick (DOB 10/16/1774 in Lexington, Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 5/15/1838 in Lexington, Davidson County, NC) married Barbara Darr (DOB 4/21/1777 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 8/29/1848 in Lexington, Davidson County, NC)

4) John Phillip Hedrick (DOB 8/16/1776 in Lexington, Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 4/27/1813 in Lexington, Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC) married Elizabeth Sylvia Zevely Leonard (DOB Abt. 1774 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 8/13/1856 in Davidson County, NC).

5) Adam Hedrick (DOB 8/26/1778 in Lexington, Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 7/2/1842 in Davidson County, NC) married Susan ? .

6) Anna Margaret Barbara Hedrick (DOB 10/10/1780 in Lexington, Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 1/29/1818 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC)

7) John Hedrick (DOB 2/13/1785 in Lexington, Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 11/10/1870 in Tazewell County, VA) married Elizabeth "Betsy" Hoppess (aka Elizabeth "Betsy" Hoppass)(DOB Abt. 1788 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 7/28/1858 in Clinch Waters, Tazewell County, VA).

8) Johann Peter Hedrick (aka John Peter Hedrick)(DOB 2/25/1788 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 11/5/1846 in Davidson County, NC) married Anna Maria Sink (DOB 9/27/1790 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 12/1/1833 in Davidson County, NC). They had John Peter Hedrick, Philip Hedrick, Adam Hedrick, Madalina Mary "Molly" Hedrick, Barbara Hedrick, Peter Hedrick, William M. Hedrick, Andrew Hedrick, Solomon Hedrick, Malinda Hedrick. He married 2nd Polly McCrary (DOB ? in ? ; DOD 5/22/1892 in Phelan, TN) and they had Hiram Addison Hedrick, Eliza Hedrick, George Hedrick, William Hedrick, Mary Mahala Hedrick.

9) Eve Hedrick (DOB 4/14/1792 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 5/26/1849 in Davidson County, NC) married John David Conrad (DOB 12/18/1788 in Old Rowan County now Davidson County, NC; DOD 8/13/1860 in Davidson County, NC).

U.S. Census Reconstructed Records, 1660-1820
Name: Adam Hedrick
Gender: M (Male)
State: North Carolina
County: Rowan County
Residence Year: 1780
Household Remarks: "Capt. Lopp's District"

1790 United States Federal Census; Census Place: Rowan, North Carolina; Series: M637; Roll: 7; Page: 314; Image: 515; Family History Library Film: 0568147
Name: Adam Hedrick
Home in 1790 (City, County, State): Rowan, North Carolina
Free White Persons - Males - Under 16: 4
Free White Persons - Males - 16 and over: 3 3
Free White Persons - Females: 3
Number of Household Members: 10

1800 United States Federal Census; Census Place: Rowan, North Carolina; Series: M637; Roll: 7; Page: 314; Image: 515; Family History Library Film: 0568147
Name: Adam Headrick
Home in 1800 (City, County, State): Salisbury, Rowan, North Carolina
Free White Persons - Males -10 thru 15: 2
Free White Persons - Males - 16 thru 25: 2
Free White Persons - Males - 45 and over: 1
Free White Persons - Females - Under 10: 1
Free White Persons - Females - 16 thru 25: 1
Free White Persons - Females - 45 and over: 1
Number of Slaves: 4
Number of Household Members Under 16: 3
Number of Household Members Over 25: 2
Number of Household Members: 12

1810 United States Federal Census; Census Place: Rowan, North Carolina; Roll: 43; Page: 247; Image: 00082; Family History Library Film: 0337916
Name: Adam Hedrick
Home in 1810 (City, County, State): Rowan, North Carolina
Free White Persons - Males - 16 thru 25: 1
Free White Persons - Males - 45 and over: 1
Free White Persons - Females - 16 thru 25: 2
Free White Persons - Females - 45 and over : 1
Numbers of Slaves: 6
Number of Household Members Over 25: 2
Number of Household Members: 11

Johann Adam Hedrick is No. 1 on the old baptismal list of the Pilgrim Church where the children of this couple are listed: Anna Marie, George, Jacob, Phillip, Adam, Barbara, Anna Margaret, John, Peter, and EvePilgrim Reformed Church had its beginning in the Dutch settlement on Abbotts Creek. Originally it served both German Reformed and Lutheran settlers. Eventually they each established their own congregations: Pilgrim Reformed Church and Pilgrim Lutheran Church which is a half-mile away.

FindAGrave.com
Johann Adam Hedrick
BIRTH 12 Oct 1741, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, USA
DEATH 16 Mar 1815 (aged 73), Rowan County, North Carolina, USA
BURIAL Pilgrim Reformed Church and Cemetery, 797 Pilgrim Church Road, Lexington, Davidson County, North Carolina, USA (35°51'10.6"N 80°12'56.5"W, 35.852941, -80.215695)
ME9MORIAL ID 14788295
The inscription on Adam Hedrick’s tombstone reads as follows:
“Wie wohl ist meinem leib
Nach ausgestandnem Leiden;
Wie wohl ist meiner Seel
In jenen Himmelsfreuden.
Adam Hetrich war geboren in Pensilvani in Lencaster County im Jahre 1741, den 12 Okdober. Seine Eltern sind Peter Hetrich und seine christliches Ehe-Weib Mille.”

Translated:
“How well is my body
After endured sufferings;
How happy is my soul
In Heaven’s blessings.
Adam Hetrich was born in Pennsylvania in Lancaster County in the year 1741, the 12th of October. His parents are Peter Hetrich and his Christian wife Milla.”

Maria Barbara Hege Hedrick
BIRTH 18 Mar 1750, Cocalico, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, USA
DEATH 18 Dec 1839 (aged 89), Lexington, Davidson County, North Carolina, USA
BURIAL Pilgrim Reformed Church Cemetery, Lexington, Davidson County, North Carolina, USA
MEMORIAL ID 70343940

Old Rowan County was the part in blue. It was eventually divided up into these counties including Davidson County, NC.

Adam Hedrick Will North Carolina 1813
Genealogical Journal of Davidson County, Volume: 2, Number: 3, Month: Fall, Year: 1982
This was among the Genealogical Records of the late Dr. J. C. Leonard D.D., these records now being in my hands. Henry Reeves. I found on Ancestry.com.

Will of ADAM HEDRICK 1813

In the Name of God Amen. I, Adam HEDRICK of Rowan County, No Carolina, being in good health and of sound and disposing Mind and Memory but calling to mind the uncertainty of life, do this 23rd day of July Anno Domino 1813 make and publish this my last Will and Testament in Manner following Viz: First, I give and bequeath to my loving wife, BARBARA, my negro Woman, Keziah, two milch (milk) cows, her choice of my Stock, to hold and possess the sole right of them during her Widowhood and for her yearly support my will is that she recave fifteen Bushels Wheat, fifteen Bushels Corn, three hundred and fifty weight of Pork, fifty weight of Beef, one and half Bushels of Salt, ten pounds of Sugar, and five pounds of Coffee and further procure for her clothing to have annually one fourth of an acre sowed in Flax, Eight pounds of Wool, one half of the Garden, one Bed and Furniture, one chest, the Use of one Room of the House, whichever she pleases to make her choice, together with Sufficient Quanity of forage for the keeping her two cows, also with a sufficient Number of kitchen Utensils, necessary for her comfort, also Eight dollars in cash, with the priviledge of as much Fruit from the Orchard as she may Want for her own use, all of which she is to have during her remaining my Widow, the provisions, salt, coffee and sugar are to be furnished equally by my five sons, GEORGE, JACOB, ADAM, JOHN, and PETER HEDRICK.
2nd, I give and bequeath my son, GEORGE, the tract of land containing two hundred acres, lying on the waters of DYKESES CREEK, where he formerly lived. Also one hundred acres of land adjoining, Peter GRIMES, Peter EVERHART, Jacob LEONARD, by me purchased of Peter EVERHART as also one half of a small tract of land of forty six acres that I purchased from John SLOAN & Hugh CUNNINGHAM. Ectrs of Joseph HANNAH, to him his heirs and Assigns forever.
3rd, I give and bequeath to my son, JACOB, the plantation on which he now lives, the division line between and his brother, JOHN, to begin west side of SWEARING CREEK on the line of their brother, ADAM, where it crosses the Creek, then down the creek as it meanders until the lower side of his old meadow, thence south east course until it strikes the original line. It being in my opinion one half of the tract of land of four hundred acres that I purchased of Adlai OSBORN, as also the one half of a small tract of land of forthy six acres that I purchased from Joseph HANAHS, Excrs to him his Heirs & Assigns forever.
4th, I give and bequeath to my son, ADAM, the tract of land on which he now lives containing three hundred acres and five acres that I purchased from Michale BEARD, to him and his Heirs and assigns forever.
5th, I give and bequeath to my son, JOHN, the plantation on which his Brother, PHILIP, lived at the time of his death. It being the remaining half of the tract of land that I purchased of Adlai OSBORN, to be divided after the Manner I have mentioned in the bequest of JACOB HEDRICK, as also twenty two acres of land on which the Mill stands, which I purchased fro Michale BEARD, to him his heirs and assigns forever.
6th, I give and bequeath to my son, PETER, the home place whereon I now live containing one hundred and nine acres, also one hundred and twenty two acres adjoining the home place by me purchased of Michale MILLER, also nine acres adjoining the home place purchased of George HEDGE, also thirty acres of land adjoining the home place by me entered, also my Still and four Hogsheads, the Sorrell Mare that is called his and her increase to him his heirs and Assigns forever.
7th, I give and bequeath to my four grandsons, JACOB, ADAM, GEORGE, SOLOMON SNIDER, one hundred acres of land that I purchased at the sale of son, PHILIP HEDRICK, dec'd to be divided equally, share and share alike amony them. I further give to my Grandson, PHILIP SNIDER and my GRAND Daughter, SOLIMA SNIDER, fifty acres of land to be laid out of the tract fo two hundred acres that I purchased from their father, GEORGE SNIDER and adjoining the tract of one hundred acres that I have given to thier Elder Brothers, I further give and bequeath untio my Grandson, PETER SNIDER, one hundred and fifty acres of land. It being the balance of two hundred acre tract that I purchased from his father, I also give and bequeath to my Gandson, PETER SNIDER, ALL the articles of Household Furniture that I purchased form Martin TRANTHAM and which are in possession of his Father and Mother, they having the use of them during their natural lives as one also one Cow and her increase, four sheep and their increase which I desire may remain in the possession of his Father and Mother during their natural lives. I further give and bequeath to my son in law, GEORGE SNIDER, one note of hand of fifty four dollars made by him to me April 1796 with the interest on the same.
I give and bequeath to my daughter, MARY SNIDER, two hundred and fifty dollars in cash to remain in the hands of my Executors and by them given to her as they may think her Necessities require and should she die before she makes use of the money willed to her, is extended my will is that my executors pay the remainder that is in their hands over to her children, shaire (share) and shaire (share) alike.
8th, I give and bequeath to my daughter, BARBARA, two hundred and fifty dollars in cash.
9th, I give and bequeath to my daugher, PEGGY, two hundred and fifty dollars in cash.
10th, I give and bequeath to my daughter, EAVE, two and hundred and fifty dollars in cash.
11th, I give and bequeath to my granddaugher, MARY HEDRICK, and daughter of my son, PHILIP, dec'd, two hundred and fifty dollars in cash.
12th, My family of Negros that have not been devised together with all my Stock of Horses, Cattle, Sheep and Hogs and all my personal property that has not been devised, my will is that they be sold at public auction and the money arising from the sale to be equally divided among my Children Hereafter named, VIZ: GEORGE, JACOB, ADAM, JOHN, AND PETER HEDRICK, BARBARA SINK, PEGGY SINK, EAVE CONRAD, AND MARY HEDRICK, my granddaughter and daughter of my son, PHILIP HEDRICK, dec'd, shaire and shaire alike, and should the negro woman, KEZIAH, survive her mistress, my will is that she be sold by my executors and the money arising from the sale, I give and bequeath to my son, PETER HEDRICK, and thereby make and ordain and appoint my Friend, Edward CHAMBERS and my son, JACOB HEDRICK, Executors of this, my last will and testament, set my hand & seal the day and year above written.

Signed, sealed and published
by the said ADAM HEDRICK,
THE TESTATOR, as his last Will
and Testament in the presence of
us who were present at the time
of signing and sealing thereof.

Other Sources I found for Heydrichs:
The Hedrick Family; 5th revised edition 1996 by Charles Fisher Ward Jr and Sr.
Cyril L. Johnson, -tombstone inscriptions.
Original History Hedrick Family by Jefferson
“Captain Peter Hedrick” by Lena Swing Cliff with sources from Family Bible, NC Colonial Records, DAR Records, Dr. Jacob Calvin Leonard’s materials, and in public records.
Davidson County Heritage-NC 1982 Published by: The Genealogical Society of Davidson County, PO Box 1665, Lexington, NC 27292]
Ship Name and arrival date: Pennsylvania German Pioneer: A publication of Original List of Arrivals in the Port of Philadelphia 1727-1808: By Ralph Beaver Strassburger, Edited by William John Hinte, 9041-Vol. 1- 1727-1775 (Baltimore Genealogical Publishing Co., 1964 (Robert and Alice from Rotterdam; List 55-A; Walter Goodman Master; Pages 212-216).

I cannot take a lot of credit for any of this as it's all findable on Ancestry.com by others who have done the real work. I'm mainly doing this to help me learn about this line in my family: their history, why and how they came here, and to tease out and unconfuse myself on the names. If there are mistakes, they are my own but I've really tried to show sources and to be careful. If you have any additional information, or corrections, please contact me at Mom25dogs@gmail.com

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