Friday, July 17, 2009
In an effort to cut costs and boost profits, northern investors opened textile mills throughout the south. Locating the mills in areas in which the cotton was grown allowed investors savings in many ways. First, with the south’s mild temperatures, cotton could be grown virtually year-round and mills could engage in continual production of textiles. Second, by locating the mill close to where the crop was grown, the cost of transportation was drastically reduced. Finally, locating a textile mill in the South allowed an investor to employ a much cheaper labor force. Most citizens of the south were struggling to survive on the income that was generated through their family farm or by sharecropping on the land of another farmer. Many southerners were relieved to be employed in a mill
History of South Carolina Edited By YATES SNOWDEN, LL. D. in collaboration with H. G. CUTLER, General Historian, THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY, CHICAGO AND NEW YORK, copywrite, 1920, Pg 52
"J. Roy Fant (John Ray or Roy Fant)
The late John A. Fant (John Alexander Fant) established the Monarch Mills at Union in 1900, and was president and treasurer of that important industry for the manufacture of wide print cloths and sheetings until 1907. Thus the name Fant has been associated with the textile industry of Union County through two decades, and the initiative and enterprise of the elder Fant are projected into the present by his capable son J. Roy, who is now managing the Lock- hart plant of the Monarch Mills.
John A. Fant was born in Union Qounty and for many years was a prominent merchant at Union, in partnership with his brother under the firm name of Fant Brothers until 1900, after which date he gave all his time and energy to the development of the business of the Monarch Mills and made it one of the largest and most successful textile mills in the South. He was frequently honored with public responsibilities, being mayor of Union, three terms, resigning that office voluntarily. For several years he was chairman of the Board of Trustees of Union, and was a trustee of Furman University at Greenville. He made an endowment to Furman University of $1,000 for the benefit of one student from Union County. Mr. Fant was in every sense a highly useful and gifted citizen. His death in 1907 came when he was in the prime of his activity. The mother was a Mcjunkin, of a historic family of Union County. John A. Fant married Ora Wilkes (Ora Ann Bowker Wilkes), who was born at Wilkesburg in Chester County, daughter of the late Major John W. Wilkes, and she is still living.
T. Roy Fant was born at Union in 1885, and secured a liberal education, at Furman University one year, graduated from the University of South Carolina in 1906, and also attended the Eastman Business College at Poughkeepsie, New York. In January, 1907, he became an associate with his father in the cotton mill business in the Monarch Mill at Union. Later he became an active associate of Mr. Emslie Nicholson, who succeeded his father as president of the Monarch Mills. In 1913 Mr. Fant was made vice president of the Nicholson Bank & Trust Company at Union and held that office two years. In August, 1914, he came to the Lockhart Mills at Lockhart as assistant treasurer, and in the latter part of 1917 this mill was merged with the Monarch Mills at Union, being now known as the Lockhart plant of the Monarch Mills. Mr. Fant has active charge of the Lockhart plant, which has 57,184 spindles and manufactures sheetings and prints. The development of Lockhart as a manufacturing village has taken place largely under the eye and direction of Mr. Fant. His sound judgment and ability had contributed not only to the success of the plant but he has been equally enthusiastic in the making of Lockhart a beautiful and modern village where contentment and prosperity are in evidence on every hand. Mr. Fant is president of the Lockhart Bank and vice president and a director of the Nicholson Bank & Trust Company at Union.
Mr. Fant married Miss Nathalie Hunter (Caroline Natalie Hunter), who is a native of Union County but was reared at Columbia in the home of her grandmother, Mrs. Robert W. Gibbes, and is therefore a member of the historic Gibbes family of South Carolina. Mr. and Mrs. Fant have two sons, J. Roy, Jr., and Murray Gibbes."
Fibre Fabric: A record of American textile industries in the cotton and woolen trade, v. 35
Publisher: Fibre Fabric, 1902
Original From: the New York Public Library, digitized in 2006
REPORT OF M. R. COOPER, SECRETARY OF STATE, TO The General Assembly of South Carolina, FOR THE FISCAL YEAR BEGINNING JANUARY 1, 1900, AND ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1900
COLUMBIA, S. C.
THE STATE COMPANY, STATE PRINTERS. 1901.
Joint Stock Companies, Charters Granted...
Pg 105 "Monarch Cotton Mills. Union ; business, manufacturing cotton ; capital stock, $200,000 ; chartered, April 24, 1900 ; president, John A. Fant ; secretary, J. A. Fant."
The Cotton Mills of SC by August Kohn, Columbia, SC, Issued by SC Dept of Agriculture, Commerce and Immigration, E. J. Watson Commissioner, Copyright 1907
Pg 88, Cotton Mills, Number of Employees 1907, Mill Population 1907
Pg 93, Cotton Mills, Spindles, Looms
Page 181 Cotton Mills, Number of Bales Consumed by SC Mills in 1907 Value of Manufactured Product in 1907
Pg 196 What they make in 1907
Pg 209 Cotton Mill, Capitalization Stock Only
Pg 216 Cotton Mills in SC, location and president
Men of Mark in South Carolina, Ideals of American Life, A Collection of Biographies of Leading Men of the State VOLUME II
by J. G. HEMPHILL, Editor of "The News and Courier", Editor-in-Chief
MEN OF MARK PUBLISHING COMPANY, Washington, D. C., 1908
"JOHN ALEXANDER FANT
FANT, JOHN ALEXANDER, merchant and mill president, was born in Union, Union county, South Carolina, April 22, 1857. His parents were David J. and Nancy A. (McJunkin) Fant. His father, a planter, was noted for his honesty, sobriety and industry. His mother was descended from Joseph McJunkin, a major in the War of 1812.
In his boyhood and youth John Fant was well and strong. His home was in the village in which he was born, and he had no tasks to perform which involved manual labor. He attended the common schools in Union until he was fifteen years of age, when he became a clerk in a country store. He retained this position for ten years, and then became a merchant. In this business, which he followed for twenty-five years, and in which he is still engaged, he has been quite successful. During the last five years he has been president and treasurer of the Monarch mills at Union. His good judgment and executive ability have made the mills a great success and won for Mr. Fant a prominent position among the cotton manufacturers of this state.
He has never sought public office, but for six terms he served as mayor of the town of Union, and for some years was chairman of its board of school trustees. He is also a trustee of Furman university. He is a Mason, a Knight of Pythias, and a member of the Commercial club of Charleston. His religious affiliation is with the Baptist church.
In the choice of an occupation Mr. Fant was governed by the wishes of his parents. The first strong impulse to strive for the prizes of life seems to have come from a desire which manifested itself in his early years to make a name for himself and accomplish something for the good of mankind. Among the various influences which have greatly aided him in his efforts to succeed, he names that of home as the most important. In response to a request that he would offer suggestions which he thinks would help ambitious young people in their efforts to become known and useful in the world, he advises them to choose "honesty, punctuality, truthfulness, sobriety and industry," as the guiding principles of their lives.
JOHN ALEXANDER FANT
Mr. Fant was married to Ora Wilkes, April 27, 1881. Of their four children, all are now (1907) living.
Since the above sketch was prepared for the printer Mr. Fant died suddenly at his home in Union on September 24, 1907."
Acts and Joint Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina. Regular Session 1899, Bryan Printing Co State Printers
"AN ACT To Charter The Union And Augusta Railway Company.
[A Concurrent Resolution allowing the introduction of this bill having been passed by a two-thirds vote of the House and Senate.]
Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the union and State of South Carolina, That James T. Douglass, A. H. Foster, F. M. Farr, William Munro, Emslie Nicholson, P. M. Cohen, John A. Fant, G. C. Perrin, and R. P. Harry, and their associates and successors, be, and are hereby, constituted a body politic and corporate, by the name and style of the "Union and Augusta Railway Company."
2. That the said company be, and is hereby, authorized construct maintain and operate a railroad extending from the town of Union, S. C., to a point on the line of the Georgia, Carolina and Northern Railroad Company, between the town of Carlisle and the town of Clinton, S. C.. and empowered to construct, maintain and operate a railroad
3. That the capital stock of said company shall be fifty thousand dollars, with the privilege of increasing the capital stock to such an amount as may be found necessary to carry out the intention and purposes of this Act, and the shares may be transferable in such manner as the by-laws may direct: Provided, That when the sum of five thousand dollars shall have been subscribed to the capital stock of said company, as hereinafter directed, and twenty per cent, thereof having been paid in cash, the said corporation, or a majority of them, shall appoint a meeting of said stockholders, of which thirty days notice shall be given in such newspaper of the State as they may deem necessary, at which time and place said stockholders may proceed to the organization of said company by the election of a President and nine Directors, who shall hold their offices for one year, and until their successors are elected, which shall be the first Board of Directors; and which Board may, in their bylaws, prescribe the time and manner of holding their subsequent annual elections for President and Directors, subject to the approval of the stockholders at their ensuing annual meeting.
Sec. 4. That for the purpose of raising the capital stock of said company it shall be lawful to open the books for private subscription at such times and places, and under the direction of such persons as the said corporators may appoint; and that the said subscriptions to the capital stock may be made in money, bonds, lands, materials and work, at such rates as may be agreed upon with said company; and the said railroad company shall have the power to mortgage its property and franchises, and issue bonds on such terms and conditions, and for such purposes and uses of said corporation, as the said company may deem necessary.
Sec. 5. The said railway company shall have every right, privilege and power necessary for the purpose of acquiring such lands or rights of way as they may require for the location or construction of said railroad, or for the erection or location of depots, warehouses, stations and other necessary establishments, or for extending or altering same; and said railway company shall have full power and authority to connect with, or cross over, all other railroads on its proposed line, and also to unite or consolidate with other railroads, either in or out of this State, in such manner and upon such terms as may be agreed upon between the companies so consolidating: Provided, The same be not inconsistent with the laws of this State; and the said company shall have the benefit of every process or proceeding, and shall be subject to all the restrictions provided or imposed in and by the laws of this State.
Sec. 6. That this Act shall be a public Act, and take effect on and after its passage: Provided, That this charter shall cease and determine unless the construction of said railroad is commenced within three years from the approval of this Act and completed within five years thereafter.
Approved the 27th day of February, A. D. 1899."
Union Carnegie Library History by Jennie Holton Fant
"Local mill magnates John A. Fant and Thomas C. Duncan, with a handful of interested town leaders began to foster the concept of an up-to-date public library in town."..."The library was built in 1905 at it's present location, first called the Carnegie Free Library."
Approved the 21st day of February, 1906
Textile World Record, Volume XXXIV, 10/1907-3/1908
"John A. Fant, president and treasurer of the Monarch Cotton Mills, Union, S. C., died suddenly at his home in that city September 24th. Up to the time of his death, he was apparently in good health. He was one of the best mill men in the State and was largely interested in mercantile, educational and religious affairs. He was 49 years of age, and leaves a wife and four children. "
Thanks to George Seals for sending me this photo of Monarch Mill from the east side, taken in 2004.
This is about all I could glean from the Internet about Monarch Mill in Union, SC. If you have additional information and/or photos, please contact me.
10/21/09 I was contacted by J. B. who said he grew up in the Monarch Mill Village and his parents still live there. He said both Monarch and Lockhart were acquired by Roger Milliken in mid-century. The Lockhart mill is gone now and he thinks Monarch is going to close soon.
He says, "Lockhart Mill was started in either 1892 or 1894. Somewhere in there. There was a canal that had been dug on Broad River to transport cotton to Columbia. They built the mill on this canal called the 'race'. They used the river to bring in supplies and later to deliver their product. Lockhart took 10 years to build. There were over a million bricks in the mill, all made on the banks of the Broad River on site. Sometime in the mid 1900’s Roger Milliken or his dad , Seth, acquired Lockhart mill and turned it into a knitting mill largely to supply the auto industry. Then in the 1970’s when the knit boom hit, it moved into apparel. Mr. Milliken closed it in 1997 I believe and sold the mill for its brick and heart pine. Two men lived in a single wide trailer on the property for two years tearing down the mill. The only thing left is the smoke stack.
"When I graduated from high school in the early 1970's Mr. Milliken owned the following in Union County:
Lockhart Power Co.
"There were mill villages associated with Lockhart, Monarch, Excelsior, and Ottoray.
"Ottoray was also torn down.
"Only Cedar Hill, Lockhart Power and EMMD (now the Gillespie plant) are now in operation.
"Monarch was as prolific in its day as Lockhart I think but transportation for its wares were with trains instead of river. Monarch wasn’t just a mill it was a community with gymnasium, elementary school (which I went to) company store with elaborate barber shop underneath which offered showers until it was finally torn down. It had a community house where they had town meetings, parties, boy scouts, etc. Boss’ row was there on the main drag (now highway 49) closest to the mill. Some of them were two story duplexes. The further you got away from the mill was where the new hands lived. In the early days there was a privy behind each house and ever so often the “sugar wagon” would come around and clean them out. In Monarch there was Old Hill, the first village built on either side of the Santuc highway. Later it was expanded and New Hill was where 49 now is.
"In the 1940’s and 50’s and even into the 60’s Monarch boasted 3 full service grocery stores, 3 or 4 hair salons, 3 barber shops, 3 café’s, movie theater, skating rink, auto garages, 4 or 5 small general stores, BBQ house, 1 gas station (Morris’ service station which is still operated by the family). There was a gym, baseball field and a pay by the hour fish pond. Workers living in the villages were given free sewer and garbage pick up. You paid Milliken for your power which was at a discount. In the beginning you used the company store for foodstuffs but that was stopped in the early 40’s. In the late 40’s running water was offered and they enclosed the back porches and installed bathroom fixtures. It was cold in the winter but it was better than before I’m sure.
"In my childhood one of the things I remember is hearing the mill running and the freight cars banging around in the night. On those rare occasions when the mill would be standing I couldn’t sleep. The right sounds weren’t there.
"You mentioned Bethel Baptist Church ……… the pastor there for a number of years was Rev. Senn …… hee hee ….. pronounced 'sin'.
"People in the village would keep the grass killed in their front yards (if they had any yard). They would take a rake and make straight lines in the dirt.
"All of the houses were originally pale yellow
"When you bought groceries you picked out your items and they were delivered to your door step.
"It was hard to get away with any mischief because villages had highly organized neighborhood watches. It wasn’t called that but it was in place nevertheless. If a neighbor saw you doing or saying something you shouldn’t you could rest assured your parents would know …. Maybe before you got home.
"Everybody thought it was something when MacDonalds came out with a $0.19 hamburger. We’d been buying burgers at O’Dells Café for $0.20 for years. Cheeseburgers were $0.25. Hot dogs were $0.15 and you could buy 7 for $1.00.
"If you walked into almost any of the village café’s and ordered a bologna sandwich it would come fried with mustard chili and onions unless you specified otherwise
"I’m sure you’ve heard of how safe it was in those days. Well it’s true. Many times we went to bed with the front door open and only the screen door latched."
"A very big pastime in those was Textile Baseball Leagues. They were the 'professional players' of the day.
"The houses in most villages were well built with rough cut lumber. Many villages called the houses “shotgun” houses because you could open the front and back doors and shoot straight through the house and not hit anything
"The walls and ceilings were made with beaded wood that was painted. Usually pine but I have seen beaded oak boards as well.
"Most of the rooms were lit with a single light bulb in the center of the room. The light was usually turned on with a pull string that hung down into the room. People would tie some object to the end of the string like keys, rings, etc. In bedrooms a long string would be run from the bulb to the headboard so that the light could be turned on from their bed.
"Ceilings were 10’ high
"None of the houses were insulated.
"Most of the homes had one fireplace in the center of the house. Not the large fireplaces for roaring wood fires but small fireplaces designed to burn coal. Most people as they could afford them would blank off the fireplace and install either a wood burning stove or an oil heater. Usually the living room would be heated and the rest of the house shut off.
"Very few of the original houses were underpinned.
"In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s children at the age of 12 or 13 could get jobs in the mill.
"Many of the mill workers were farmers. Most were glad to take jobs in the mill because it was a lot less difficult and not nearly as risky as farming. It meant a steady income in most cases something they weren’t used to. Still most mill workers clung to some of their ways and gardens, chickens, pigs and the like were still a normal and necessary presence. "
Tuesday, July 14, 2009
•2 cups fresh ripe but firm peach slices
•1 medium banana, sliced
•1/2 cup red seedless grapes, optional
•1 tablespoon lemon juice
•2 tablespoons granulated sugar
•1/2 cup flaked coconut
Combine peaches, banana, grapes, lemon juice, and sugar. Chill for about 1 hour. Add coconut just before serving. Spoon into dessert dishes.
Monday, July 13, 2009
6-8 strawberries (fresh or frozen)
6-8 blackberries (fresh or frozen)
8 ice cubes
2 1/2 cups lowfat or non-fat milk
1 scoop whey powder
Rinse and cut tops of strawberries, and rinse blackberries. Combine all ingredients in a blender. Blend until smooth and enjoy.
Perfect for dieting, or leave out whey powder and add ice cream for a delicious smoothy drink.
Makes about 3-5 cups.
Source: Cooks.com, Meagan Pettinger
Do you organize your clothes? There are lots of ways to organize your clothes whether it's drawers or closets or cabinets. It greatly depends on your space!
The first thing to ask yourself is how many clothes do I realistically need? Some people actually hoard clothes and refuse to get rid of any clothes they have ever had. Or they collect clothes much as someone collects trains, automobiles, matchbooks or 1950's memorabilia. It doesn't matter so much if they ever wear them, it's important to them that they own them. You may think this doesn't make much sense but how much sense does it make to collect sports memorabilia, drink coasters, guns or wine. In fact, in many collections (like Barbies) it is important never to use the item or even open the boxes. Others just can't pass a "bargain" even if they don't need it. So, to each his own.
But ask yourself why you have so many clothes and recognize what drives you to have what you have and how important it is. Sort through every piece of clothing and ask yourself, "Why do I have this? Will I wear it? Is it comfortable and attractive on me? Does it fit my normal style?"
Here are some rules you can use to determine whether to toss, give to charity, keep, store:
* If it's old, grimy, has holes, rips, tears, paint drops, stains, faded, pilled, the material is pulled out of shape...Toss in the trash! Only keep a couple of messy outfits for those days you work in the yard or paint a room. Tell yourself that, at least you got your money's worth and forgive yourself as you make yourself THROW IT AWAY!
*If it doesn't fit any more, then ask yourself if you will realistically be back in that size again soon. If you've put on weight or lost weight then this is a reasonable question to ask. Are you good at losing weight, do you fluctuate 5-10 lbs easily, are you pregnant, etc.? If you do realistically anticipate a weight gain or lost in the very near future then put these clothes in a separate pile. But remember, styles come and go and if you don't think you will need them for a year or more, it's time to give them to charity.
*If it was never comfortable, then give it to charity. Everybody has bought something that turned out to bug the hound out of you for some reason or other. Maybe it's too short, the skirt is too tight for you to walk, the sleeves aren't quite long enough, the neck is too constricting, the heels are too high, the shoes kill your feet. Give it to charity. Learn a lesson...don't waste money on stuff you aren't too sure about.
*As you sort you may find that you have more than one of something. For instance you have 3 black suit jackets, or 10 floral skirts, or 6 yellow tanks. You have to make some decisions...how many do I really need? If I wore a floral skirt every day for a week, I still couldn't wear all 10 in a week. Plus, you probably have a washer/dryer so you can wash what you wear. You don't want to wear yellow tank tops everyday so you don't need 6. Go through them and determine the best of them and keep only as many as you REALLY NEED. Set all others to the side to give away. Make yourself give it away. And learn a lesson...don't waste money on stuff you may already have. Keep it organized so you know what you have and this wont' happen again.
*If you have items that are sorely out of style or it no longer fits YOUR style, then it's time to give it to charity. Some things don't really go out of style but some are very in or out of style. Highly padded shoulders, severely low waisted or severely high waisted pants, very chunky shoes or severely pointed toe pumps...these are examples of something that is in style one season but out by the next year. Styles seem to either stick around like glue or they come and go within weeks and don't come back for 30 years. I keep waiting for the boy's big pants pulled under their butts to go out of style but they've stayed in style for 10 yrs now and they still can't walk for their pants. They've deliberately handicapped themselves and can't walk but they wear them. On the other hand, women have handicapped themselves by wearing such high stiletto heels and this has been a fashion for about 5 yrs now. Same with the super low waisted blue jeans that show the butt crack every time you bend over or the super short skirts that make them unable to bend or squat without a free show. But examples of things that have come and gone quickly are the toe socks, wearing fleece lined boots with shorts in the summer, or poet blouses. So if you have stuff that is out of style or they aren't appropriate outfits then it's time to get rid of them. There are some things that women my age shouldn't wear, some things (whether in fashion or not) we just grow up and shouldn't be wearing. I would look silly and inappropriate if I wore tight, low riders with a short top showing my stomach. I don't like it on teenage girls but especially not on a woman much less a mature woman. I'm not a teeny bopper anymore and I need to find things that are age appropriate. This doesn't mean we have to wear old lady clothes. Just find clothes that you like but are age appropriate. Learn a lesson...buy things that don't go out of style so quickly. Wear the hound out of them and you've saved a lot of money over the years. Don't invest much in styles that are here today but gone tomorrow. And be realistic about what is appropriate to wear in your lifestyle. If you work at Hooters then those hot pant shorts are what you need. If you spend most of your time at school where you can't wear hot pant shorts (the super short shorts) you don't need to waste money on having them. If you are overweight, you definitely don't want to have any. If you are over 22 you've aged out of them. So look at your lifestyle, how old you are, your weight and figure, what you spend most of your time doing and make some decisions about what is appropriate. Then don't waste money on buying inappropriate stuff. My sister works at a church so low cut blouses and short skirts are out. All 3 of the sisters work a lot with dogs so we need blue jeans and t-shirts for that kind of work. If you are a lifeguard then comfortable swimsuits are a must. So you will have more than I do since I swim maybe once in a gazillion years! As you see, there are lots of different needs and lifestyles that require different stuff. So look at your lifestyle and make decisions on what is necessary and appropriate for you.
While the closet and drawers are empty, it's a good time to clean them, paint or re-paper them. Vacuum them out, wipe the shelves and drawers. Purchase decent hangers, sachets and organizers. Wire hangers are terrible for your clothes, they wrinkle them. Overstuffing your closet also makes wrinkles.
Once you've sorted through the clothes and purged it's time to decide how you want to organize them. You should be down to what you wear on a regular basis. Now here is where you decide how you want to organize depending on your space. If you don't have enough space to accomodate your winter AND summer clothes, then you need to divide summer from winter and decide on how you want to store those out-of-season clothes.
Here is a look at my closet:
Here are some ideas for storing out-of-season clothes:
Now you decide to organize in a way that makes sense to you. Do you want to organize according to colors?
By the way, if this is a real closet I think we can safely say this person has too many clothes!
Or do you want like thinks together like all the tank tops together, all your slacks together, all your tshirts together?
Maybe you want to store outfits together?
If you store outfits together you could use these hangers to hold your blouse, jacket and skirt on the same hanger.
How about dividing the clothes between work or school/night life/church/leisure?
Here are some ideas on storing smaller things in chest of drawers.
Notice how this person used ziploc bags?
To see more on organizing closets and cleaning closets:
If you are interested in how to organize and decorate your laundry room:
Sunday, July 12, 2009
Painting - Paint brushes, roller handles, rollers of different naps, scrapers, stirring strips, rags...
Wallpapering - Razor cutters, razor blades, wallpaper tray, roller, measuring stick.....
Gardening - Clippers, knife, trowel, shovel, hoe, pitchfork, hedge trimmer, lawnmower, edger, chainsaw...
Auto - Screw drivers, oil wrench, tire pressure gauge...
Office - Scissors, pen, stapler, tape dispenser, ruler...
Carpentry - Hammer, screw drivers, saws...
Household - Hammer, screw drivers, wire cutter, pencil nosed pliers, tape measure, small touch up paint brush...
As you can see, we have a lot of tools for different reasons. If you can organize your tools for each job and keep like things together, it will make your work much more efficient. Keep all your paint tools together. Maybe use a 5 gallon bucket and keep them all together in the bucket. Keep all your wallpapering tools together maybe in the wallpaper tray. Keep all your garden tools in one area. Etc.
Here are some inspiring tool boxes:
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