Saturday, August 16, 2008
My husband and his brother, Kenny, were on the Drayton Ruritan Football Team in 1967 when this group photo was taken. It was taken on the field at the old Spartanburg Day School Lower School across the street and a block from the Drayton Textile Mill. This mill is now closed and the Day School consolidated all of their holdings at their main location where it is now on Cannon's Campground Road across from Mary Black Memorial Hospital.
Stan was able to name almost all of the boys and the coaches so I did a black & white photo of the group and labelled the boys and coaches with a legend on the bottom of the photo.
I put this black & white photo on cardstock and made a tab out of burgundy ribbon to pull it out from behind the main photo. I used the main photo like a pocket.
I used some football paper and used a white paint pen to make faux strategy sketches. I used some die cuts on pop dots to raise them on the corner. I also used a journaling die cut on pop dots at the bottom of the page.
Thursday, August 14, 2008
Many cleaning agents today are technically not soaps, but detergents, which are less expensive and easier to manufacture.
The most popular soapmaking process today is the cold process method, where fats such as olive oil react with lye. Soapmakers sometimes use the melt and pour process, where a premade soap base is melted and poured in individual molds. Handmade soap differs from industrial soap in that, usually, an excess of fat is sometimes used to consume the alkali (superfatting), and in that the glycerin is not removed leaving a naturally moisturising soap and not pure detergent. Superfatted soap, soap which contains excess fat, is more skin-friendly than industrial soap; though, if not properly formulated, it can leave users with a "greasy" feel to their skin. Often, emollients such as jojoba oil or shea butter are added.
Cold-process soapmaking takes place at a temperature sufficiently above room temperature to ensure the liquification of the fat being used, and requires that the lye and fat be kept warm after mixing to ensure that the soap is completely saponified. A cold-process soapmaker first looks up the saponification value of the fats being used on a saponification chart, which is then used to calculate the appropriate amount of lye. Excess unreacted lye in the soap will result in a very high pH and can burn or irritate skin. Not enough lye, and the soap is greasy. Most soap makers formulate their recipes with a 4-10% discount of lye so that all of the lye is reacted and that excess fat is left for skin conditioning benefits. The lye is dissolved in water. Then oils are heated, or melted if they are solid at room temperature. Once both substances have cooled to approximately 100-110° F (37-43° C), and are no more than 10° F (~5.5° C) apart, they may be combined. This lye-fat mixture is stirred until "trace" (modern-day amateur soapmakers often use a stick blender to speed this process). Essential oils, fragrance oils, botanicals, herbs, oatmeal or other additives are added at light trace, just as the mixture starts to thicken. The batch is then poured into molds, kept warm with towels or blankets, and left to continue saponification for 18 to 48 hours. Milk soaps are the exception. They do not require insulation. Insulation may cause the milk to burn. During this time, it is normal for the soap to go through a "gel phase" where the opaque soap will turn somewhat transparent for several hours before turning opaque again. The soap will continue to give off heat for many hours after trace. After the insulation period the soap is firm enough to be removed from the mold and cut into bars. At this time, it is safe to use the soap since saponification is complete. However, cold-process soaps are typically cured and hardened on a drying rack for 2-6 weeks (depending on initial water content) before use.
In the hot-process method, lye and fat are boiled together at 80–100 °C until saponification occurs, which the soapmaker can determine by taste (the bright, distinctive taste of lye disappears once all the lye is saponified) or by eye (the experienced eye can tell when gel stage and full saponification have occurred). After saponification has occurred, the soap is sometimes precipitated from the solution by adding salt, and the excess liquid drained off. The hot, soft soap is then spooned into a mold.
The common process of purifying soap involves removal of sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and glycerol. These components are removed by boiling the crude soap curds in water and re-precipitating the soap with salt.
Most of the water is then removed from the soap. This was traditionally done on a chill roll which produced the soap flakes commonly used in the 1940s and 1950s. This process was superseded by spray dryers and then by vacuum dryers.
The dry soap (approximately 6-12% moisture) is then compacted into small pellets. These pellets are now ready for soap finishing, the process of converting raw soap pellets into a salable product, usually bars. It is the soap base.
Soap pellets are combined with fragrances and other materials and blended to homogeneity in an amalgamator (mixer). The mass is then discharged from the mixer into a refiner which, by means of an auger, forces the soap through a fine wire screen. From the refiner the soap passes over a roller mill (French milling or hard milling) in a manner similar to calendering paper or plastic or to making chocolate liquor. The soap is then passed through one or more additional refiners to further plasticize the soap mass. Immediately before extrusion it passes through a vacuum chamber to remove any entrapped air. It is then extruded into a long log or blank, cut to convenient lengths, passed through a metal detector and then stamped into shape in refrigerated tools. The pressed bars are packaged in many ways.
Sand or pumice may be added to produce a scouring soap for an exfoliating soap.
"Triple milled" or "french milled" soap involves a process called rebatching, or hand milling. It is a soapmaking technique used by hobbyists and artisan soapmakers. In rebatching, commercially purchased or previously made soap (a soap base) is shredded or diced finely. They begin with a soap mixture which is pressed between sets of rollers which flatten it into paper thin sheets. The sheets of soap are then shredded and ground through the rollers again. That product is then put through extrusion machinery which squeezes out a long bar of tightly compacted soap which is cut into individual bars. French Milled relates to the use of stainless steel rollers to smooth out the soap and further mix it, giving it a smoother finish and softer feel. It is milled/formed under pressure (not heat), and milled/formed and milled/formed three times. Soapmakers frequently use rebatching as a way of adding substances that could not withstand the high temperatures or caustic chemical environment of hot process soapmaking, such as certain essential oils (for example, those with a very low flash point). It makes for a finer textured soap.
The choice of liquid affects the character of the finished soap; milk is frequently used to give the soap a smooth, creamy consistency.
Mass-produced soap also typically contains chemicals, such as sodium chloride, which facilitate a longer shelf life and others which allow the mixture to efficiently process through the rollers during the manufacturing process. Any attempt to “mill” a natural soap product would fail because, being full of highly saturated fats and oils, no additives and an excess of glycerin, it would stick to the rollers.
A natural by-product of the soap-making process is glycerin. Glycerin is an humectant, which means it draws moisture to the skin. Most soap manufacturers remove the glycerin and use it in other products to increase their profit margin. The end result being, you are cleansing your skin with basically detergent.
Essential oils made from plant extracts can be added, superfatting - the addition of lovely avocado oil, almond oil or beeswax, to protect, moisten and soften the skin, and triple milling - which assures blended consistency.
My sources were Wikipedia, Pioneerlinens.com/bronnley, WikiAnswers
by Alex Lieber
Seen on PetPlace.com
The day is hot and sultry, the kind of day when you work up a sweat by just breathing. A few minutes of vigorous activity, and you're swimming within your own shirt. But your dog only pants, with his tongue hanging out by at least a mile, to show he's hot also.
So whose body is better at keeping cool? The answer is, yours. It may be uncomfortable for you to sweat profusely, but it's an efficient method to regulate temperature. When it comes to keeping cool, we have it made in the shade compared to our dogs.
In people, sweat glands help regulate temperature by bringing warm moisture to the surface of the skin, which causes cooling as the water evaporates. Because sweat glands are located all over the human body, cooling takes place over a greater surface area of the skin than it does in dogs.
Dogs don't have the luxury of overall cooling because their bodies have very few sweat glands, and most of those are in the footpads.
Dogs cool themselves primarily by the process of panting and breathing, with the moist lining of their lungs serving as the evaporative surface.
Most people believe that the dog's tongue contains sweat glands, but this is not true. The dog's tongue and mouth are associated with many salivary glands that produce different forms of saliva. Some cooling takes place as the panting dog moves air across saliva-moistened surfaces of the mouth cavity.
Dogs also dissipate heat by dilating (expanding) blood vessels in the face and ears. Dilating blood vessels helps cool the dogs blood by causing it to flow closer to the surface of the skin.
Excessive play on a hot day can lead to overheating (hyperthermia) and eventually to heat stroke. A dog's normal body temperature is within the range of 100.5 to 102.5 degrees Fahrenheit. If his temperature rises to 105 or 106 degrees, he may suffer heat exhaustion. At 107 degrees, heat stroke can occur, with potentially catastrophic consequences. Heat stroke can cause brain damage and even death.
A dog that is overheated will act sluggishly, or perhaps confused. His gums and tongue may appear bright red, and he will be panting hard. The dog may vomit, collapse, have a seizure, and may go into a coma.
An overheated dog is a real emergency situation. Get him to a veterinarian immediately. If possible pour water from the garden hose on him to begin the cooling process. On the way to the veterinary clinic, cover him with cool wet towels or spritz him with cool water. Don't use ice-cold water.
Monday, August 11, 2008
"Many Christians behave as if the church were established to meet their needs and to keep them comfortable and entertained until Christ returns. I refer to this as the "Love Boat Syndrome." We behave as if the Ship of Zion is the Love Boat. The role of the captain and staff is to entertain and cater to the needs of the passengers while they enjoy a pleasurable cruise to Glory. Everything is fine as long as the food is sufficient, the music restful, the waters calm and no one moves my deck chair. But in reality, the Ship of Zion is a hospital ship..."
Is the Bible 'Enough' for Church Growth?
Kenneth S. Hemphill
Sunday, August 10, 2008
It took a long time for my husband to understand my lack of ambition to have a "paying" career. Because I'm not paid, he didn't see it as valuable. I worked outside the home parttime due to my increasingly bad health for the first 20 years of our married life. But I was never happy with it. I was good at what I did but it wasn't fulfilling to me. My only ambition was to be a good housewife, domestic engineer. Finally my health was such that I was unable to work outside the home. For the last 12 years I've learned how to accommodate my disabilities and keep our home. And my husband has found out that he likes for me to be at home. He's begun to appreciate it and value it. So it's become a win-win situation for us both. Every woman doesn't feel this way but it's not nice to make fun of women who do choose this kind of life. My husband doesn't keep me "bare foot and pregnant in the kitchen" and he doesn't tyrannize me and keep me "in my place". I don't wait on him hand and foot like a slave. I am doing what I want to do and he accepts me as I am and values me and my contribution. I try to do the same for him. It's about mutual respect.
With this, let me introduce you to something I found online. It's really unusual and, therefore, pretty neat. These women CHOOSE to live a certain lifestyle that is so intriguing. I love history and am intrigued by the old days. I can see the lure of re-enactment. These women are re-enacting a certain time in history as a lifestyle. As long as they are enjoying themselves, I think it's cool. Check out the Time Warp Wives at the link below:
Go and grab a cup of coffee or tea and enjoy. You are going to die when you see! Watch this one first... and this one second
My Most Popular Posts
Sorting Saturday is a daily blogging prompt at Geneabloggers.com used by many genealogy bloggers to help them post content on their sites....
What Are Miniature Pinschers? In this photo you have the Doberman Pinscher (the largest one), the German Pinscher (the medium one) and the...
Does your laundry area look anything like this one? If you were honest, you might have to admit that it really does look like this or, some...
I looked for baby nursery ideas on a Google search. Baby rooms range from small to large so I tried to pick out a wide range. I was looking ...
Those plastic coffee creamer bottles can be reused! You can use them to carry water and juice in just like any water bottle. And you know ho...
How important are your dogs to you? Are they a possession that you just feed and water everyday? Or are they a part of your family? My five ...
The dogtrot, also known as a breezeway house, dog-run, or possum-trot, is a style of house that was common throughout the Southeastern Unite...
One method for Bible study is called Verse Mapping. Verse mapping is taking a single verse and breaking it down and studying it. You researc...
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau began in the 1880s as a reaction against the historical emphasis of mid-19th-century art. Art Nouveau is an intern...
If you do any baking, you have an idea how great it would be to have a baking center in your kitchen. A place where you can organize your ba...