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Monday, July 28, 2014

Murder Monday - David Sidney Ricker and Almira Cross

David Sidney Ricker was born 1/13/1828 in Limestone Springs, Greene County, TN to John K. Ricker, Sr (DOB 6/7/1799 in Limestone Springs, Greene County, TN; DOD 5/29/1885 in Limestone Springs, Greene County, TN) and Mary Delila Lyles (DOB 2/16/1806 in Limestone Springs, Greene County, TN; DOD 4/30/1891 in Limestone Springs, Greene County, TN). David Sydney Ricker was the 4th of 13 children (13 children who did live to adulthood!).

John K. Ricker, Sr. and Mary Delila Lyles 13 children:
1) Nancy Ann Ricker married William B. Cutshall (son of John Cutshall and Margaret Smithers)
2) Margaret Ricker married Solomon Fann, Jr.
3) Martha Ricker married Jacob Cutshall (son of John Cutshall and Margaret Smithers)
4) David Sidney Ricker married Almira Cross
5) Elijah John Ricker married Charlotte Elizabeth Lamb (daughter of Nathan Marmaduke Lamb and Orpha Rollins)
6) Frederick K. Ricker married Nancy Jane Taylor (daughter of Gordon and Catherine Taylor)
7) Susannah A. Ricker married Edward M. Nolen. Also had a daughter out of wedlock named Nancy Margaret Malinda Ricker. The family story is that Susan was raped by an Indian and a daughter was the result. This is my direct descendant.
8) Daniel Peter Ricker married Mary Elizabeth Taylor
9) Eve Ricker married James Dorsey Carlisle
10) Mary Jane Ricker married John Oliver Lamb (son of Rev. John Rollins Lamb and Sarah Ann Ealey)
11) Malinda Ricker married Stephen C. Jennings. They had 6 children: John W. Jennings, William H. Jennings, Ida Jane Jennings, Thomas Greeley Jennings*, George Edward Jennings, Martial Jennings (aka Marshall Jennings)*
12) John K. Ricker, Sr. married Louisa Jane Humphreys
13) Sarah Caroline Ricker married Emanuel King Waddle

David S. Ricker married Almira Cross on 1/25/1850 in Greene County, TN. She was born 3/25/1830 in Greene County, TN.

U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing
Name: David S Ricker
Gender: Male
Birth Place: TN
Birth Year: 1828
Spouse Name: Elmira Miers
Marriage
Year: 1850
Marriage State: TN
Number Pages: 1

Tennessee State Marriages, 1780-2002
Name: Almira Miers
Spouse: David S Rakers
Marriage Date: 27 Jan 1850
Marriage County: Greene


1850 U.S. Census of Division 9, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: M432_880; Page: 222B; Image: 450, Lines 10-11, "David Ricker"
David Ricker, 23 yrs old (DOB 1827), M(ale), W(hite), Miller, Born in TN
Almira Ricker, 22 yrs old (DOB 1828), F, W, Born in TN

They had 6 known children:
1) Mary Jane Ricker (DOB 7/12/1850 in Greene County, TN; DOD 2/1908 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico) married William Mills (DOB 1/1842 in TN; DOD 7/26/1903 in Lexington, Cleveland County, OK, I did not find a source for his death). They had Andrew Thomas Mills, John Franklin Mills, Daniel Christopher Mills, William David Mills, Mary Alice Mills, Joseph Frances Mills, James Marion Mills, Milton H. Mills, Robert Lincoln Mills "Bob", Benjamin H. Mills, Nettie Mills, Perry H. Mills.

2) John Franklin Ricker (DOB 4/26/1852 in Greene County, TN; DOD 2/7/1932 in Greene County, TN) married Mary Florence Waddle (DOB 3/18/1854 in Greene County, TN; DOD 1/8/1932 in Greene County, TN).

3) William Callaway Ricker* (DOB 4/7/1861 in Greene County, TN; DOD 1/1/1938 in Hot Springs, Madison County, NC) married 1st Nan Roberts (DOB Abt 1865 in ? ; DOD ? in ? ), 2nd Hester Norton* (DOB 9/6/1875 in Madison County, NC; DOD 1/27/1945 in Madison County, NC), 3rd Martha Hudson (DOB 9/13/1889 in Madison County, NC; DOD 6/27/1975 in Marshall, Madison County, NC). With Nan Roberts he had a daughter named Sallie Ricker (DOB About 1891 in Greene County, TN; DOD 11/24/1918 in Stanly County, NC) married James C. Roberts. With Hester Norton he had no known children. With Martha Hudson he had a son named Albert Ricker (DOB 1914 in Madison County, NC; DOD 1990 in Madison County, NC).

4) Alice Ricker (DOB About 1866 in Greene County, TN; DOD ? in ? ) married ? .

5) David Fleenor Ricker* (aka D.F. Ricker) (DOB 1867-1869 in Greene County, TN; DOD 8/6/1921 in Hot Springs, Madison County, NC) never married.

6) Florence Ricker (DOB About 1873 in Greene County, TN; DOD ? in ? ) married ? .


1860 U.S. Census of District 18, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: M653_1252; Page: 377; Image: 365; Family History Library Film: 805252, Lines 38-40, "David Ricker"
David Ricker, 32 yrs old (DOB 1828), M(ale), W(hite), Farmer, $500 Real estate value, $300 Personal estate value, Born in TN
Almira Ricker, 30 yrs old (DOB 1830), F, W, Born in TN
Mary J. Ricker, 8 yrs old (DOB 1858), F, W, Born in TN
Eliza Lamb, 20 yrs old (DOB 1840), F, W, Born in TN, Cannot read or write
Mary J. Lamb, 6 yrs old (DOB 1854), F, W, Born in TN
Rachail Lamb (sic), 4 yrs old (DOB 1856), F, W, Born in TN
Martha E. Lamb, 3 yrs old (DOB 1857), F, W, Born in TN
Bertha S. Lamb, 9/12 mos old (DOB 1859), F, W, Born in TN

U.S. IRS Tax Assessment Lists, 1862-1918
1862 U.S. IRS Tax Assessment
Roll Title: Gibson (part}, Giles, Greene, Grundy, Hamilton, Hickmun, Henry, Henderson, Haywood, Hawkins, and Hardin (part) counties
NARA Series: T227
NARA Roll: 3

Name of Owner: Riley H. Lamb
No. of Acres: 80
Valuation: $160
Taxes Fixed and Notice Given: $ .36
So per cust. penalty: $ .23

Name of Owner: N. H. Lamb
No. of Acres: 635
Valuation: $900
Taxes Fixed and Notice Given: $3.15
So per cust. penalty: $ 1.38

Name of Owner: John R. Lamb
No. of Acres: 40
Valuation: $200
Taxes Fixed and Notice Given: $ .71
So per cust. penalty: $ .30

Name of Owner: Wm. R. Lamb
No. of Acres: 150
Valuation: $200
Taxes Fixed and Notice Given: $ .33
So per cust. penalty: $ .27

Name of Owner: David S. Ricker
No. of Acres: 42
Valuation: $300
Taxes Fixed and Notice Given: $ 1.45
So per cust. penalty: $ .50

Name of Owner: John Ricker
No. of Acres: 184 3/4
Valuation: $1,000
Taxes Fixed and Notice Given: $3.50
So per cust. penalty: $1.75

Name of Owner: Daniel Ricker
No. of Acres: 9 1/4
Valuation: $50
Taxes Fixed and Notice Given: $ .18
So per cust. penalty: $ .29

Name of Owner: Elijah Ricker
No. of Acres: 125
Valuation: $400
Taxes Fixed and Notice Given: $ 1.46
So per cust. penalty: $ .70


1870 U.S. Census of District 18, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: M593_1531; Page: 385B; Image: 443; Family History Library Film: 553030, Lines 31-36, "David Rickor" (sic, David Ricker)
David Rickor, 43 yrs old (DOB 1847), M(ale), W(hite), Farmer, $800 Real estate value, $400 Personal estate value, Born in TN
Almira Rickor, 39 yrs old (DOB 1831), F, W, Keeping house, Born in TN
John Rickor, 17 yrs old (DOB 1853), M, W, Born in TN
William Rickor, 6 yrs old (DOB 1864), M, W, Born in TN
Alice Rickor, 4 yrs old (DOB 1866), F, W, Born in TN
David F. Rickor (sic), 2 yrs old (DOB 1868), M, W, Born in TN

1880 U.S. Census of District 18, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: 1258; Family History Film: 1255258; Page: 26D; Enumeration District: 044, Lines 21-26, "David Ricker"
David Ricker, W(hite), M(ale), 53 yrs old (DOB 1847), Head, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Ellie Ricker, W, F, 50 yrs old (DOB 1830), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
William Ricker, W, M, 17 yrs old (DOB 1863), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Allice Ricker (sic), W, F, 14 yrs old (DOB 1867), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
David Ricker, W, M, 11 yrs old (DOB 1869), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Florence Ricker, W, F, 7 yrs old (DOB 1873), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN

David Sidney Ricker died 7/4/1884 in Greene County, TN and was buried in Solomon Lutheran Church, Cove Creek Cemetery, 670 Cove Creek Road, Greeneville, Greene County, Tennessee.

Almira Cross Ricker died 3/4/1892 in Greene County, TN and was buried with her husband at Solomon Lutheran Church, Cove Creek Cemetery, 670 Cove Creek Road, Greeneville, Greene County, TN.

FindAGrave.com
David S. Ricker
Birth: 1828
Death: 1884
Burial: Solomon Lutheran Church Cemetery, Greeneville, Greene County, Tennessee, USA
Plot: (-) U-8
Created by: Cindy McClain
Record added: Feb 14, 2009
Find A Grave Memorial# 33847279

FindAGrave.com
Almira Ricker
Birth: Mar. 25, 1830
Death: Mar. 4, 1892
Burial: Solomon Lutheran Church Cemetery, Greeneville, Greene County, Tennessee, USA
Plot: T-5
Created by: Cindy McClain
Record added: Feb 14, 2009
Find A Grave Memorial# 33847229

"Thomas Greely JENNINGS and his brother {?}, Marshall JENNINGS were killed in the Cove Area of Greene County in the late 1800's. cir. 1895. Two of their first cousins, William RICKER and D.F. RICKER killed them. Thanks to Sherry HEMPEL, who saw my question on this forum and recognized what I was talking about, and wrote to me, and called me to tell me about the Indictment papers on them. The Indictment Papers were dated, Oct. 7, 1896. Now for my question...there was a woman that was also indicted with them, Hester NAULTY...Does anyone have any knowledge of who Hester NAULTY was, and what part she played in this murder for her to also be indicted. Does anyone know if these three were sent to prison for this? All four men involved, Thomas JENNINGS, Marshall JENNINGS, William RICKER, and D.F. RICKER were 1st cousins of both of my grandfather's, RICKER/ WADDELL. "
-Thelma Waddell Wisecarver

Here are my notes: There was a Hester Norton born 9/6/1875 in Madison County, NC to John Joseph Norton and Samantha Elizabeth Tarlton. I tried to do an overview of all the Hesters of the right age and this was the closest one I found that matched up, so I think Hester Norton married a Naulty.

There was a "James R. Naulty". He was born 11/1871 in TN. This would make him the right age to have married Hester Norton. According to the 1930 U.S. Census Hester indicated that she was first married when she was 16 yrs old which would have been 1891. But her husband in 1930 indicated he was married in 1902. She was married before!

In the 1900 U.S. Census of Shelton Laurel, Madison County, North Carolina, James Naulty is listed born 11/1871 in TN, Single and a day laborer. So maybe they didn't marry? But I'm pretty sure she married James Naulty about 1891. I just haven't found conclusive proof. I did not find another "Naulty" male (or female) in the area and he was the right age. But by 1900 they are not together, James Naulty is living the single life in Greene County, TN. In the 1910 census he was living with his wife, Eliza Jane Thompson, in Greene County, TN. He has a son named Benjamin Naulty living with them who was born about 1893. If James and Hester were married in 1891, did they have a son named Benjamin Naulty in 1893? In the 1920 census James is still with Eliza in Greene County, TN but they now have a son named Ottice Naulty born in 1919. James Naulty died in 1922. Eliza Jane Thompson Naulty remarried to John Moore. She died 1/10/1948 of cerebral hemorrhage in Greene County, TN.

W.C. and D.F. Ricker and Hester Naulty are indicted for murder of two of the men's first cousins in 1896. As of right now, I haven't found any of the 3 principles in the 1900 U.S. Census.

In the 1910 U.S. Census of Hot Springs, Madison County, NC, Hester and William Calloway Ricker are living as husband and wife with W.C.'s daughter, Sallie, and her husband, James C. Roberts. Sallie was born about 1891 in TN. The census says that W.C. is Sallie's father but that Hester is her "stepmother". This means that W.C. and Hester were not married to each other when Sallie was born in 1891. But 1891 is the age Hester gave as the age when she first married. So she married in 1891 but NOT to W.C. Ricker.

The 1910 U.S. Census says that W.C. and Hester had been married 10 yrs which would be about 1900. One year later she's down in Spartanburg, SC claiming to be the wife of Luther Brazil although W.C. Ricker was still alive and he married Martha Hudson on 2/27/1910 Greene County, TN. Did they divorce or were they not really married, just living together?

In the 1920 U.S. Census W.C. Ricker is married to Martha (Hudson) Ricker. They have a son named Albert Ricker born in 1915 so they must have been married (or together) at least 5 yrs and they are living in Hot Springs, Madison County, NC. Hester and Luther Brazil are still together in the 1920 census and living in Shelton Laurel, Madison County, NC. They have a 3 yr old son named "Johnson Brazil". David Fleenor "D.F." Ricker is living with their other brother, John Franklin Ricker, in 1920 in Greene County, TN. He was single and working as a carpenter.

D.F. Ricker died in 8/6/1921 in Hot Springs, Madison County, NC. Cause of death: Chronic valvular disease or heart (aortic regurgitation), contributory cause was excessive use of liquor. He was single.

In the 1930 U.S. Census, Hester and Luther Brazil are still living together with their 17 yrs old son but now he's named "Clois Brazil". In the 1940 U.S. Census, Hester and Luther Brazil are still living together with their 27 yrs old son but he's named "Jim Brazil" now. They continued to live in the Laurel section of Madison County, NC. Hester died 1/27/1945. Her death certificate said there was "No doctor, died of heart attack". She was 69 yrs old. Luther Brazil died 12 years later on 11/12/1957 of "Pulmonary edema (duration 1 day) due to broncho-pneumonia (duration 10 days) due to chronic bronchitis (duration years); other significant conditions were burns after fire (12 hours)". He was 71 yrs old.

W.C. Ricker died 1/1/1938 in Madison County, NC. Cause of death: Coronary sclerosis due to high blood pressure. He was 76 yrs old.

See sources below.

Sources for the children:

1) Mary Jane Ricker and William Mills

U.S. Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles
Name: William M Mills
Residence: Lynchburg, Virginia
Age at Enlistment: 19
Enlistment Date: 23 May 1861
Rank at enlistment: Private
Enlistment Place: Lynchburg, Virginia
State Served: Virginia
Service Record: Enlisted in Company B, Virginia 24th Infantry Regiment on 23 May 1861.
Birth Date: abt 1842
Sources: The Virginia Regimental Histories Series

Tennessee State Marriages, 1780-2002
Name: William Mills
Spouse: Mary Jane Ricker
Marriage Date: 9 Sep 1866
Marriage County: Greene

1870 U.S. Census of 18th District, Limestone Springs, Greene County, Tennessee; Page: 386; Post Office: Limestone Springs; Image: 44, Lines 37-40, "William Mills"
David and Almira Ricker and family (Mary Jane Ricker Mills' parents)
William Mills, Head, 26 yrs old (DOB 1844), M(ale), W(hite), Farm laborer, $0 Real estate value, $400 Personal estate value, Born in TN
Mary J. Mills, 18 yrs old (DOB 1852), F, W, Keeping house, Born in TN, Can read but cannot write
Thomas Mills, 2 yrs old (DOB 1868), M, W, Born in TN
John F. Mills, 1 yr old (DOB 1869), M, W, Born in TN

1880 U.S. Census of Pierce City, Lawrence County, Missouri; Roll: 698; Family History Film: 1254698; Page: 497B; Enumeration District: 087; Image: 0476, Lines 36-43, "Wm Mills"
Thos and Johanna Ketchum and family
Wm Mills, W(hite), M(ale), 35 yrs old (DOB 1845), Married, Farm laborer, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Mary J. Mills, W, F, 28 yrs old (DOB 1852), Married, Keeping house, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Andrew Mills, W, M, 13 yrs old (DOB 1867), Single, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
John F. Mills, W, M, 11 yrs old (DOB 1869), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
William D. Mills, W, M, 9 yrs old (DOB 1871), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Mary A. Mills, W, F, 7 yrs old (DOB 1873), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Christopher Mills, W, M, 4 yrs old (DOB 1876), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Joseph F. Mills, W, M, 2 yrs old (DOB 1878), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
James M. Mills, W, M, 4/12 mos old (DOB 1/1880), Born in Kansas, Both parents born in TN
H.S. and Nannie Burgess and family

1900 U.S. Census of Township 4 (T 4 N R 2 W = Township 4 North Range 2 West=around Cherokee Sandy Site Reservoir 1 and Cherokee Sandy Site Reservoir 2 between Pauls Valley, Garvin County, OK and Hart, Pontotoc County, OK), Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory (OK, USA); Roll: 1849; Enumeration District: 0156; FHL microfilm: 1241849, Lines 54-62, "William Mills"
Joseph and Lila Bullock and family
William Mills, Head, W(hite), M(ale), Born Jan, 1843, 57 yrs old, Married 34 yrs (DOM 1866), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Farmer, Can read and write, Rents farm
Mary J. Mills, Wife, W, F, Born July, 1850, 48 yrs old, Married 34 yrs, 13 children with 12 still living, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Can read, Can't write
Joseph F. Mills, Son, W, M, Born Aug, 1878, 22 yrs old, Single, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Farm laborer, Can read and write
James M. Mills, Son, W, M, Born Jan, 1879, 21 yrs old, Single, Kansas, Both parents born in TN, Farm laborer, Can read and write
Milton H. Mills, Son, W, M, Born Jan, 1883, 17 yrs old, Single, Born in Arkansas, Both parents born in TN, Farm laborer, Can read and write
Robert L. Mills, Son, W, M, Born Sept, 1886, 13 yrs old, Single, Born in Indian Territory (OK), Both parents born in TN, Farm laborer, Can read, Cannot write
Benjamin H. Mills, Son, W, M, Born Jan, 1889, 12 yrs old, Single, Born in Indian Territory (OK), Both parents born in TN, Can read and write
Nettie Mills, Daughter, F, W, Born Oct, 1891, 8 yrs old, Born in Indian Territory (OK), Both parents born in TN
Perry H. Mills, Son, M, W, Born March, 1895, 5 yrs old, Born in Indian Territory (OK), Both parents born in TN
John and Mary E. Spaid and family

FindAGrave.com
Mary Jane Ricker Mills (M. J. Mills)
Birth: Jul. 12, 1850
Death: Feb., 1908
Burial: La Lande Cemetery, Off Red Lake Road, Fort Sumner, DeBaca, New Mexico, United States
Created by: Penne Magnusson Hannum
Record added: Jul 06, 2012
Find A Grave Memorial# 93155255


2) John Franklin Ricker married Mary Florence Waddle
I was not able to find them in the censuses.

TN Death certificate #2592, Registration District #53002, Registration #177, Mr. J.F. Ricker, DOD 2/7/1932 in Civil District 18, Greene County, TN Male, White, Widowed, 79 yrs old (DOB 1853) in TN
Occupation: Farmer at home
Father: David Ricker, born in TN
Mother: Annie Myers (sic), born in TN
Informant: Chas Ricker, City
DOD 2/7/1932 at 2:10 ?m
Cause of death: Arteriosclerosis, nephritis, old age, sick for months
Buried: 2/8/1932 in Besheler (sic, Beersheba Cemetery, Limestone Springs, Greene County, TN)

FindAGrave.com
John Franklin Ricker
Birth: Apr. 26, 1853
Death: Feb. 7, 1932
Family links: Spouse: Mary Waddle Ricker (1853 - 1932)
Children:
Charles H Ricker (1876 - 1934)
Crawford Starnes Ricker (1887 - 1958)
Burial: Beersheba Cemetery, Houston Valley Rd, Greeneville, Greene, Tennessee
Maintained by: Mountain Traveler
Originally Created by: BookGoddess
Record added: May 21, 2008
Find A Grave Memorial# 26982950

FindAGrave.com
Mary Florence Waddle Ricker
Birth: Mar. 18, 1853
Death: Jan. 8, 1932
Family links: Spouse: John F. Ricker (1853 - 1932)
Children:
Charles H Ricker (1876 - 1934)
Crawford Starnes Ricker (1887 - 1958)
Burial: Beersheba Cemetery, Houston Valley Rd, Greeneville, Greene, Tennessee
Maintained by: Mountain Traveler
Originally Created by: BookGoddess
Record added: May 21, 2008
Find A Grave Memorial# 26982928


3) William Callaway Ricker married Nan Roberts, Hester Norton and Martha Hudson

Tennessee State Marriages, 1780-2002
Name: Martha Hudson
Spouse: William Ricker
Marriage Date: 27 Feb 1910
Marriage County: Greene

Tennessee State Marriages, 1780-2002
Name: Nan Roberts
Spouse: William Ricker
Marriage Date: 8 Feb 1882
Marriage County: Greene

I couldn't find a source for the marriage to Hester Norton but she is listed as his wife in the 1910 U.S. Census.

1880 U.S. Census of District 18, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: 1258; Family History Film: 1255258; Page: 26D; Enumeration District: 044, Lines 21-26, "David Ricker"
David Ricker, W(hite), M(ale), 53 yrs old (DOB 1847), Head, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Ellie Ricker, W, F, 50 yrs old (DOB 1830), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
William Ricker, W, M, 17 yrs old (DOB 1863), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Allice Ricker, W, F, 14 yrs old (DOB 1867), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
David Ricker, W, M, 11 yrs old (DOB 1869), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Florence Ricker, W, F, 7 yrs old (DOB 1873), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN

I could not find him in the 1900 U.S. Census.

1910 U.S. Census of Hot Springs, Madison County, North Carolina; Roll: T624_1107; Page: 6B; Enumeration District: 0080; FHL microfilm: 1375120, Lines 60-63, "James Roberts"
James Roberts, Head, M(ale), W(hite), 21 yrs old (DOB 1889), Married 1 yr (DOM 1909), Born in NC, Both parents born in NC, Laborer logging camp, Can read and write
Sallie Roberts, Wife, F, W, 19 yrs old (DOB 1891), Married 1 yr, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Can read and write
William Ricker, Father-in-law, M, W, 47 yrs old (DOB 1863), 2nd Marriage, Married 10 yrs (DOM 1900), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Carpenter house, Can read and write
Hester Ricker, Stepmother, F, W, 36 yrs old (DOB 1874), 1st Marriage, Married 10 yrs (DOM 1900), 0 children, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC, Can read and write

1920 U.S. Census of Hot Springs, Madison County, North Carolina; Roll: T625_1294; Page: 14B; Enumeration District: 116; Image: 813, Lines 51-53, "William C. Ricker"
William C. Ricker, Head, Rented home, M(ale), W(hite), 56 yrs old (DOB 1864), Married, Can read and write, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Carpenter house
Martha Ricker, Wife, 34 yrs old (DOB 1886), Married, Can read and write, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC, Housewife
Albert Ricker, Son, 5 yrs old (DOB 1915), Born in NC, Father born in TN, Mother born in TN

NC Death Certificate #335, Registration District #58-30, Certificate #2, William Ricker, DOD 1/1/1938 in Hot Springs, Madison County, NC
Male, White, Married to Martha Ricker, DOB 4/7/1861 in Greeneville, Greene County, TN, 76 yrs, 8 mos, 13 days old
Occupation: Cabinet maker carpentry
Father: David Ricker, born in Greeneville, Greene County, TN
Mother: Martha Mars (sic, Elmira Miers), born in Greeneville, Greene County, TN
Informant: David Ricker, RFD #1, Arden, NC
DOD 1/1/1938 at 2:30 ?m
Cause of death: Coronary sclerosis due to high blood pressure
Buried: 1/2/1938 in Hot Springs, Madison County, NC

North Carolina, Death Indexes, 1908-20
Name: William Ricker
Age: 76
Race: White
Date of Birth: 1862
Date of Death: 1 Jan 1938
Death County: Madison
Death State: North Carolina
Source Vendor: NC State Archives. North Carolina Deaths, 1908-67

Hester may have been Hester Norton daughter of John Joseph Norton and Samantha Elizabeth Tarlton and, although she was in the 1910 U.S. Census with William Callaway Ricker as his wife, in 1911 she was in Spartanburg, SC with Luther Brazille as HIS wife (William Callaway Ricker was still alive). Had she and W.C. Ricker divorced?

Spartanburg Herald Journal, Spartanburg, SC, Spartanburg Herald Journal, 2/21/1911, last page (back of main section)
Couple Are Extradited
Deputy Sheriff Comes From Tennessee To Take Back Man And Woman In Jail
Deputy Sheriff W.C. Ricker, of Greeneville, Greene Count. Tenn., arrived here yesterday with extradition papers for Luther Brazille, charged with larcenym and Mrs. Hester Naulty, who is charged with criminal trespass. They have been in jail for some time, arrested by Sheriff White at the Spartan Mill village, where they had been living as man and wife.
Mrs. Naulty declared to a Herald reporter that a mistake had been made in the arrest of herself and Brazille. She said they came from North Carolina and were married, and she felt no fear as to the outcome of the case.

Hester remained with Luther Brazil the rest of her life while William Callaway Ricker married Martha Hudson.

1910 U.S. Census of Hot Springs, Madison County, North Carolina; Roll: T624_1107; Page: 6B; Enumeration District: 0080; FHL microfilm: 1375120, Lines 60-63, "James Roberts"
James Roberts, Head, M(ale), W(hite), 21 yrs old (DOB 1889), Married 1 yr (DOM 1909), Born in NC, Both parents born in NC, Laborer logging camp, Can read and write
Sallie Roberts, Wife, F, W, 19 yrs old (DOB 1891), Married 1 yr, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Can read and write
William Ricker, Father-in-law, M, W, 47 yrs old (DOB 1863), 2nd Marriage, Married 10 yrs (DOM 1900), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Carpenter house, Can read and write
Hester Ricker, Stepmother, F, W, 36 yrs old (DOB 1874), 1st Marriage, Married 10 yrs (DOM 1900), 0 children, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC, Can read and write

1920 U.S. Census of Shelton Laurel, Madison County, North Carolina; Roll: T625_1294; Page: 6B; Enumeration District: 125; Image: 1023, Lines 84-86, "Luther Brazle" (sic)
Luther Brazle, Head, Rents farm, M(ale), W(hite), 37 yrs old (DOB 1883), Married, Can read and write, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC, Farmer, tenant
Hester Brazle, Wife, F, W, 42 yrs old (DOB 1878), Married, Can't read and write, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC
Johnson Brazle, Son, M, W, 3 yrs old (DOB 1917), Born in NC, Both parents born in NC

1930 U.S. Census of Laurel, Madison County, North Carolina; Roll: 1704; Page: 7A; Enumeration District: 0017; Image: 955.0; FHL microfilm: 2341438, Lines 94-96, "Luther Brazil" (sic)
Luther Brazil, Head, Owns farm, M(ale), W(hite), 48 yrs old (DOB 1882), Married at age 20 yrs old (DOM 1902), Cannot read or write, Born in NC, Both parents born in SC, Farmer
Hester Brazil, Wife, F, W, 55 yrs old (DOB 1875), Married at age 16 yrs old (DOM 1891), Cannot read or write, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC
Clois Brazil, Son, M, W, 13 yrs old (DOB 1917), Single, Can read and write, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC

1940 U.S. Census of Hayes Run, Marshall, Madison County, North Carolina; Roll: T627_2939; Page: 6B; Enumeration District: 58-10, Lines 63-66, "Luther Brigal" (sic)
Luther Brigal, Head, M(ale), W(hite), 57 yrs old (DOB 1883), Married, Attended school thru 1st grade, Born in NC, Lived in the same place in 1935, Laborer road work
Hester Brigal, Wife, F, W, 66 yrs old (DOB 1874), Married, Did not attend school, Born in NC, Lived in the same place in 1935
Jim Brigal, Son, M, W, 27 yrs old (DOB 1913), Single, Attended school thru 8th grade, Born in NC, Lived in the same place in 1935, Laborer road work

NC Death Certificate #2916, Registration District #58-01, Certificate #2, Hester Brazil (sic), DOD 1/27/1945 in Township #2 (Shelton Laurel), Rural, Madison County, NC
Usual Residence: R#3 (**illegible*** Laurel), Marshall, Madison County, NC
Male, White, Married to Luther Brazil (sic), DOB 9/6/1875 in Madison County, NC, 69 yrs old
Occupation: Housewife
Father: John Norton, born in Madison County, NC
Mother: Samantha Tarlton, born in Madison County, NC
Informant: Luther Brazil, R#3, Marshall, NC
DOD 1/27/1945 at 5:30am
Cause of death: "No Doctor, Died with heart attack"
Buried: 1/29/1945 in Joe Tweed Cemetery, near White Rock, NC

North Carolina, Death Indexes
Name: Hester Brazil
Race: White
Age: 69
Date of Birth: 1876
Date of Death: 27 Jan 1945
Death County: Madison
Death State: North Carolina
Source Vendor: NC State Archives. North Carolina Deaths, 1908-67

NC Death Certificate #28298, Registration District #11-95, Registrar's Certificate #1324, Luther Brazil (sic), DOD 11/12/1957 in Mission Memorial Hospital, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC (length of stay 5 days)
Usual residence: Rt #2, Mars Hill Highway, Marshall, Madison County, NC
Male, White, Widower of Hester Norton Brazil (deceased), DOB 2/29/1886 in North Carolina
Occupation: Miner, coal mining
Father: Joe Brazil, Mother: Charity Pruitt, Informant: Mrs. Fina Hensley, Rt #2, Marshall, NC
DOD 11/12/1957 at 10:35pm
Cause of death: Pulmonary edema (duration 1 day) due to broncho-pneumonia (duration 10 days) due to chronic bronchitis (duration years); other significant conditions were burns after fire (12 hours)
Buried: 11/15/1957, Tweed Cemetery, Madison County, NC

U.S. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918
Registration State: North Carolina; Registration County: Madison; Roll: 1765688, Luther Brazale, Serial #769A, Order #204
Serial #769A, Luther Brazale, Order #204
White Rock, Madison County, NC
34 yrs old, DOB 2/23/1884
White
Occupation: Laborer, **illegible** Co, Madison County, NC
Nearest Relative: Mrs. Hester Brazale (sic), White Rock, Madison County, NC
32-2-31-C
Medium Height, Medium Build, Brown Eyes, Brown Hair
Signed by him 9/12/1918 in Madison County, NC

I believe she was first to married James R. Naulty (DOB About 1872 in TN; DOD About 1922 in Greene County, TN). We find him first in the 1880 U.S. Census.

1880 U.S. Census of District 10, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: 1258; Family History Film: 1255258; Page: 174C; Enumeration District: 052, Lines 25-32, "James Oler"
James Oler, W(hite), M(ale), 25 yrs old (DOB 1855), Head, Widowed, Farmer, Born in TN, Father born in VA, Mother born in SC
Joseph Oler, W, M, 6 yrs old (DOB 1874), Son, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Mary E. Oler, W, F, 3 yrs old (DOB 1877), Daughter, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Nancy L. Oler, W, F, 63 yrs old (DOB 1817), Mother, Widowed, Keeping house, Born in SC, Both parents born in SC, Cannot write
Mary Nolte (sic), W, F, 36 yrs old (DOB 1844), Sister, Widowed, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
James Nolte, W, M, 7 yrs old (DOB 1863), Nephew, Born in TN, Father born in Prussia, Mother born in TN
Nancy E. Nolte, W, F, 3 yrs old (DOB 1866), Niece, Born in TN, Father born in Prussia, Mother born in TN
William F. Nolte, W, M, 11/12 mos old (DOB 1869), Born in June, Nephew, Born in TN, Father born in Prussia, Mother born in TN

1900 U.S. Census of Shelton Laurel, Madison County, North Carolina; Roll: 1205; Page: 12A; Enumeration District: 0074; FHL microfilm: 1241205, Lines 31-38, "Mary Canteral", James B. Naulty is boarding with this family

I did not find him in the 1900 U.S. Census. He married Eliza Jane Thompson.

1910 U.S. Census of Civil District 1, Greene, Tennessee; Roll: T624_1501; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 0066; FHL microfilm: 1375514, Lines 51-53, "James Naulty"
James Naulty, Head, M(ale), W(hite), 40 yrs old (DOB 1870), 2nd Marriage, Married 2 yrs (DOM 1908), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Farmer, Can read and write, Owns farm
Eliza J. Naulty, Wife, F, W, 28 yrs old (DOB 1882), 1st Marriage, Married 2 yrs, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Can read and write
Benjamin Naulty, Son, M, W, 17 yrs old (DOB 1893), Single, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Farm laborer, Can read and write

1920 U.S. Census of Civil District 22, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: T625_1742; Page: 5B; Enumeration District: 91; Image: 109, Lines 59-62, "James R. Naulte" (sic)
James R. Naulte, Head, Owns farm with mortgage, M(ale), W(hite), 47 yrs old (DOB 1873), Married, Can read and write, Born in TN, Father born in Holland (Dutch), Mother born in TN, Farmer,
Liza Naulte, Wife, F, W, 36 yrs old (DOB 1884), Married, Can read and write, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Ottice Naulte, Son, M, W, 1 yr old (DOB 1919), Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Dan Bright, Laborer, M, W, 52 yrs old, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC, Laborer on general farm

FindAGrave.com
James Naulta
Birth: 1872
Death: 1922
Burial: Mount Olive Cemetery, Greystone, Greene County, Tennessee, USA
Maintained by: Mountain Traveler
Originally Created by: BookGoddess
Record added: Jun 19, 2011
Find A Grave Memorial# 71596531

James Naulta and Hester Norton probably had a son named Benjamin Naulty born about 1893 but I found him in the 1910 U.S. Census but not before or after that. She also had a son with Luther Brazille named James Johnson Clois Brazil born about 1913-1917. He was in the 1920-1940 U.S. Censuses but I didn't find him after that.


4) Alice Ricker

1870 U.S. Census of District 18, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: M593_1531; Page: 385B; Image: 443; Family History Library Film: 553030, Lines 31-36, "David Rickor" (sic, David Ricker)
David Rickor, 43 yrs old (DOB 1847), M(ale), W(hite), Farmer, $800 Real estate value, $400 Personal estate value, Born in TN
Almira Rickor, 39 yrs old (DOB 1831), F, W, Keeping house, Born in TN
John Rickor, 17 yrs old (DOB 1853), M, W, Born in TN
William Rickor, 6 yrs old (DOB 1864), M, W, Born in TN
Alice Rickor, 4 yrs old (DOB 1866), F, W, Born in TN
David F. Rickor (sic), 2 yrs old (DOB 1868), M, W, Born in TN

1880 U.S. Census of District 18, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: 1258; Family History Film: 1255258; Page: 26D; Enumeration District: 044, Lines 21-26, "David Ricker"
David Ricker, W(hite), M(ale), 53 yrs old (DOB 1847), Head, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Ellie Ricker, W, F, 50 yrs old (DOB 1830), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
William Ricker, W, M, 17 yrs old (DOB 1863), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Allice Ricker (sic), W, F, 14 yrs old (DOB 1866), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
David Ricker, W, M, 11 yrs old (DOB 1869), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Florence Ricker, W, F, 7 yrs old (DOB 1873), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN


5) David Fleenor Ricker

1920 U.S. Census of Civil District 18, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: T625_1741; Page: 9A; Enumeration District: 87; Image: 1090, Lines 43-45, "John Ricker"
John Ricker, Head, Owns farm free of mortgage, M(ale), W(hite), 65 yrs old (DOB 1855), Married, Can read and write, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Farmer
Mary Ricker, Wife, F, W, 64 yrs old (DOB 1856), Married, Can read and write, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
David Ricker, Brother, M, W, 53 yrs old (DOB 1867), Single, Can read and write, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN, Carpenter

North Carolina, Death Indexes
Name: D. F. Ricker
Gender: Male
Race: White
Marital Status: Single
Age: 54y
Birth Date: 1867
Birth Place: Greene Co., Tenn.
Residence Date: 6 Aug 1921
Residence Place: Hot Springs, N.C.
Death Date: 6 Aug 1921
Death Place: Hot Springs, Madison, North Carolina
Burial Date: 11 Aug 1921
Burial Place: Tenn.
Cemetery: Cave Creek
Occupation: Carpenter
Father:
Mother:
Reference ID: fn 639 cn 403
FHL Film Number: 1892797

NC Death Certificate #403, Registration District #582395, Registered #11, D.F. Ricker (sic), DOD 8/6/1921 in Hot Springs, Madison County, NC
Male, White, Single, DOB Unknown, 54 yrs old (DOB 1867) in Greene County, TN
Occupation: Carpenter
Father: D.S. Ricker, born in TN
Mother: Myra Myers, born in TN
Informant: W.C. Ricker, Hot Springs, NC DOD 8/6/1921 at 2:00am
Cause of death: Chronic valvular disease or heart (aortic regurgitation), contributory cause was excessive use of liquor
Buried 8/11/1921 at Cove Creek Cemetery, TN


6) Florence Ricker

1880 U.S. Census of District 18, Greene County, Tennessee; Roll: 1258; Family History Film: 1255258; Page: 26D; Enumeration District: 044, Lines 21-26, "David Ricker"
David Ricker, W(hite), M(ale), 53 yrs old (DOB 1847), Head, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Ellie Ricker, W, F, 50 yrs old (DOB 1830), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
William Ricker, W, M, 17 yrs old (DOB 1863), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Allice Ricker, W, F, 14 yrs old (DOB 1866), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
David Ricker, W, M, 11 yrs old (DOB 1869), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN
Florence Ricker, W, F, 7 yrs old (DOB 1873), No relation, No occupation, Born in TN, Both parents born in TN


If you have any corrections or additional information, please contact me at Mom25dogs@gmail.com.

Thursday, July 24, 2014

My Latest Scrapbook Pages

Here are my latest digital scrapbook pages.

This photo of our niece, Jenny, was a little blurry so I used Adobe Photoshop Elements to make it a watercolor and then used in this layout.





Here is our niece, Hannah.



The latest addition to our family is our grandniece, Reagan. She just got back from her first trip to the beach so I made this bright layout.



Our grandnephew, Will, in the pool. He was sitting in a float and he just looked like a little captain of a boat. His little feet were kicking. It was so cute!


Monday, July 21, 2014

Why Did God Create Mankind?



Why did God create humans? Why did He create human beings? I've been asking myself this question for a very long time. I'm so thankful for what God has done for me and how He has taken upon Himself the task of saving me and giving me eternal life with Him! I have complete faith that He has done that through the sacrifice of His Son, Jesus Christ, who voluntarily took the sins of this world upon Himself in order to spare us. But, if humans had never been created Jesus wouldn't have had to do that so why were we created? I've been praying for a long time that God would help me understand a little about this. I doubt I will fully understand until we meet face to face but I know He can help me understand enough. We cannot fully fathom any of God’s actions or thoughts; the finite understanding the infinite is futile and impossible. But this morning I decided now was the time to study on this subject.

Why did God create the human race? And why did God create humanity into a universe contaminated with sin? Why was the human race drawn into a sinful situation? We didn't ask to be here. Not a single one of us asked to be born. And we certainly didn't ask to be born sinners. Why did God put us here? For what purpose did God create the world? What is the purpose of our existence? Please do not be arrogant enough to think that you are the first human to ask these kind of questions or that you are somehow so much more intelligent than the rest of us because you ask questions like this. Anyone with a brain will ask these kind of questions at some point in their life. What shows true humility, maturity and intelligence is how you go about finding answers. If you stop with the question, throw up your hands, roll your eyes and lock down your brain... you are no smarter than the average bear (as per Yogi Bear). But if you search out an answer by reading the Bible, studying it, meditating on it, praying about it, then you are showing a willingness to learn, a maturity and intelligence that goes deeper than most. As I said, I've prepared my heart by praying to God and asking Him to open my understanding, expressing my faith whether or not I ever get an "answer" and humbling myself to receive from Him.


Ezekiel 28 (Contemporary English Version)
The LORD God said:(Eze 28:1)

Ezekiel, son of man, tell the king of Tyre that I am saying: You are so arrogant that you think you're a god and that the city of Tyre is your throne. You may claim to be a god, though you're nothing but a mere human.(Eze 28:2)

You think you're wiser than Daniel and know everything.(Eze 28:3)

Your wisdom has certainly made you rich, because you have storehouses filled with gold and silver.(Eze 28:4)

You're a clever businessman and are extremely wealthy, but your wealth has led to arrogance!(Eze 28:5)

You compared yourself to a god, so now I, the LORD God,(Eze 28:6)

will make you the victim of cruel enemies. They will destroy all the possessions you've worked so hard to get. Eze 28:7)

Your enemies will brutally kill you, and the sea will be your only grave.(Eze 28:8)

When you face your enemies, will you still claim to be a god? They will attack, and you will suffer like any other human.(Eze 28:9)

Foreigners will kill you, and you will die the death of those who don't worship me. I, the LORD, have spoken.(Eze 28:10)

The LORD said:(Eze 28:11)

Ezekiel, son of man, sing a funeral song for the king of Tyre and tell him I am saying: At one time, you were perfect, intelligent, and good-looking.
(Eze 28:12)

You lived in the garden of Eden and wore jewelry made of brightly colored gems and precious stones. They were all set in gold and were ready for you on the day you were born.(Eze 28:13)

I appointed a winged creature to guard your home on my holy mountain, where you walked among gems that dazzled like fire.(Eze 28:14)

You were truly good from the time of your birth, but later you started doing wicked things. (Eze 28:15) You traded with other nations and became more and more cruel and evil. So I forced you to leave my mountain, and the creature that had been your protector now chased you away from the gems.(Eze 28:16)

It was your good looks that made you arrogant, and you were so famous that you started acting like a fool. That's why I threw you to the ground and let other kings sneer at you.(Eze 28:17)

You have cheated so many other merchants that your places of worship are corrupt. So I set your city on fire and burned it down. Now everyone sees only ashes where your city once stood,(Eze 28:18)

and the people of other nations are shocked. Your punishment was horrible, and you are gone forever. (Eze 28:19)

The LORD said: (Eze 28:20)

Ezekiel, son of man, condemn the city of Sidon(Eze 28:21)

and tell its people: I, the LORD God, am your enemy! People will praise me when I punish you, and they will see that I am holy.(Eze 28:22)

I will send deadly diseases to wipe you out, and I will send enemies to invade and surround you. Your people will be killed, and you will know that I am the LORD.(Eze 28:23)

When that happens, the people of Israel will no longer have cruel neighbors that abuse them and make them feel as though they are in a field of thorns and briers. And the Israelites will know that I, the LORD God, have done these things. (Eze 28:24)

The LORD God said: Someday I will gather the people of Israel from the nations where they are now scattered, and every nation will see that I am holy. The Israelites will once again live in the land I gave to my servant Jacob. (Eze 28:25)

They will be safe and will build houses and plant vineyards. They will no longer be in danger, because I will punish their hateful neighbors. Israel will know that I am the LORD their God.(Eze 28:26)



The prince of Tyre of the time was probably Ithobal II (aka Ethbaal, or Ithobalus). It is not, however, any individual prince that the prophet threatens, but the ruler of Tyre, who is the embodiment of the spirit of the proud commercial city. The sin with which the prophet charges the prince is pride of heart and self-deification. - The Cambridge Bible For School And College

Idolatrous nations and idolatrous kings were, in the eyes of the prophet, antagonists to the true God. In them was embodied the principle of evil opposing itself to the divine government of the world. Hence, some of the fathers saw upon the throne, not simply a hostile monarch, but “the Prince of this world, spiritual wickedness (or wicked spirits) in high places.” Whenever evil in any way domineers over good, there is a “prince of Tyrus,” against whom God utters His voice. The “mystery of iniquity is ever working, and in that working we recognize the power of Satan whom God condemns and will destroy. -Albert Barnes' Notes On The Bible


The vision is not of Satan in his own person, but of Satan fulfilling himself in and through an earthly king who arrogates to himself divine honours, so that the prince of Tyrus foreshadows the Beast. -Scofield Reference Notes

And no wonder! For Satan himself transforms himself into an angel of light. (2 Corinthians 11:14, New King James Version)

This passage not only describes an earthly king, King of Tyre, but is a picture of what happened to satan. Lucifer, satan, the devil, was a created being called a Cherubim, an angelic or heavenly being. He and the hosts of angels were created sometime between Days 1-3 of Creation.

Satan was originally perfect (blameless) from the day he was created until he sinned (wickedness was found in him). Thus, we can deduce that Satan was created during creation week; since he was blameless, he was under God’s “very good” proclamation.

Then God saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very good. So the evening and the morning were the sixth day. (Genesis 1:31 NKJV)

Some of God’s creative work was eyewitnessed by angels and morning stars sang. From Genesis 1, God created the foundations of the earth on either day 1 (earth created) or day 3 (land and water separated). Physical stars (created on day 4) were present while the angels shouted for joy. If this was the case, then morning stars and angels did their singing and shouting after the stars were created.

For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him (Colossians 1:16, NKJV)

You alone are the Lord; You have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and everything on it, the seas and all that is in them, and You preserve them all. The host of heaven worships You (Nehemiah 9:6)

Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth? Tell Me, if you have understanding. Who determined its measurements? Surely you know! Or who stretched the line upon it? To what were its foundations fastened? Or who laid its cornerstone, when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy? (Job 48:4-7, NKJV)

The king of Tyre referred to in Ezekiel 28, was never a model of perfection (verse 12), nor was he on the mount of God (verse 14), nor was he in the Garden of Eden (verse 13; note that the Flood has destroyed the Garden of Eden several hundred years prior to this time period). So this passage does not refer to an earthly king alone but also to satan.

Satan was created perfect, beautiful and with a talent of music. He was on the mount of God (verse 14), and he was in the Garden of Eden. He had access and lived at the very Throne of God. May have even led the worship of God. But the “perfection” was false and unsuspected until the “iniquity” which lay beneath was found out. He wanted to be God and, in his pride and arrogance, thought he could take over and become God. For this idolatry, pride, self deification he was cast down from Heaven. He acted in rebellion and convinced a third of the angels to follow him. Like man, the angels were created perfect, and with a free will. Lucifer created sin, not God. He is the originator of sin. Lucifer means “light bringer.” The Hebrew is heylel and means “light bearer,” “shining one,” or “morning star.” Many modern translations translate this as star of the morning or morning star. Pride, jealousy, discontent, and self-exaltation arose in his life. Lucifer decided to attempt to unseat God and then demand that all worship him. It was treason of the worst kind.

How you are fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! How you are cut down to the ground, you who weakened the nations! For you have said in your heart: “I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will also sit on the mount of the congregation on the farthest sides of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will be like the Most High” (Isaiah 14:12; King James Version)

So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. (Revelations 12:4 NKJV)

For if God did not spare the angels who sinned, but cast them down to hell and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved for judgment. (2 Peter 2:4, NKJV)

When satan sinned, he was cast from heaven (Isaiah 14:12). Satan's headquarters now is the earth, not hell. This must have been after day 6 of creation week because God pronounced everything very good (Genesis 1:31). God says that sin is detestable in His eyes so He wouldn't have pronounced everything good if the rebellion had happened. Then God sanctified the seventh day. Would God have sanctified a day in which a great rebellion occurred? In Genesis 1:28, God commanded Adam and Eve to be fruitful and multiply. Had they waited very long to have sexual relations, they would have been sinning against God by not being fruitful. So, it couldn’t have been long after day 7 that Satan tempted the woman through the serpent. Archbishop Ussher, a 17th-century Bible scholar, placed Satan’s fall on the tenth day of the first year, which is the Day of Atonement. The Day of Atonement seems to reflect back to the first sacrifice when God made coverings for Adam and Eve from the coats of animal skins (Genesis 3:21).

Why did satan sin?
Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God”; for God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He Himself tempt anyone. But each one is tempted when he is drawn away by his own desires and enticed. Then, when desire has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and sin, when it is full-grown, brings forth death. (James 1: 13-15, NKJV)

He who sins is of the devil, for the devil has sinned from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that He might destroy the works of the devil. (1 John 3:8, NKJV)

God is not the author of sin; our desires are. Satan’s own desires caused his pride, his sin. Not God! Satan is the one that sinned and brought sin and rebellion into the world, therefore bringing death. Adam and Eve also had a choice and they chose to sin and rebel against God. The wages of sin is death.

The fear of the Lord is to hate evil; Pride and arrogance and the evil way And the perverse mouth I hate. (Proverbs 8:13, NKJV)

For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Romans 6:23, NKJV)

Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and you who dwell in them! Woe to the inhabitants of the earth and the sea! For the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, because he knows that he has a short time (Revelation 12:12, NKJV)

But can an angel, a supernatural being, die? If not, how is the problem of sin to be rectified? How to finally defeat sin and death? Is it possible that God's plan of salvation had to have a human being at it's center, flesh and blood, that could die and be raised again? Jesus became a flesh and blood human being in order to take care of sin once and for all and save us from sin and death. He did this for human beings, not for satan and his demons. Was it because, as supernatural beings, they couldn't die and sin would have gone on into eternity? But, God created human beings, gave them a choice as well, but knowing that they would also rebel. This time though, He could save us and deal with sin through Jesus Christ. It just might be that God had to create the universe so that the fall would be included in His plan for the very purpose of demonstrating and manifesting His perfect character: Love!

But there shall by no means enter it anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life. (Revelation 21:27, NKJV)

Satan is the enemy of God. He is neither humble nor submissive to God. He challenges God. But Satan’s purpose has been frustrated. What happened through Satan’s opposition to God is exactly what always happens in the plan of God. Satan is allowed to rebel and do that which he supposes will hinder God’s people and His plan. Satan is allowed to do only what God has planned for His glory and our good. He does nothing apart from divine permission. His intent is destruction, pain, misery. God turns it around and uses it for good.

And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose. (Romans 8:28, NKJV)


What about satan? What happens to him? He can't die, so what happens to him and the demonic angels that follow him?

And another sign was seen in the heavens. And behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on his heads! (Rev 12:3)

And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them onto the earth. (Rev 12:4) (Revelations 12: 3-4a, MKJV)

The dragon here is satan and the angels that followed him were the 1/3 that were swept into his rebellion.

(Revelations 12: 7-12, MKJV)And there was war in Heaven. Michael and his angels warring against the dragon. And the dragon and his angels warred, but did not prevail. Nor was place found for them in Heaven any more.

And the great dragon was cast out, the old serpent called Devil, and Satan, who deceives the whole world. He was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.(Rev 12:9)

And I heard a great voice saying in Heaven, Now has come the salvation and power and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of His Christ. For the accuser of our brothers is cast down, who accused them before our God day and night.(Rev 12:10)

And they overcame him because of the blood of the Lamb, and because of the word of their testimony. And they did not love their soul until death.(Rev 12:11)

Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and those tabernacling in them. Woe to the inhabitants of the earth and in the sea! For the Devil came down to you, having great wrath, knowing that he has but a little time.(Rev 12:12)...

And the dragon was enraged over the woman, and went to make war with the rest of her seed, who keep the commandments of God and have the testimony of Jesus Christ. (Rev 12:17)
Revelation 20:1-3, MKJV And I saw an angel come down from Heaven, having the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. (2) And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him a thousand years. (3) And he cast him into the abyss and shut him up and set a seal on him, that he should deceive the nations no more until the thousand years should be fulfilled. And after that he must be loosed a little time.

Revelation 20:7-15, MKJV And when the thousand years have expired, Satan will be loosed out of his prison. (8) And he will go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle. The number of them is as the sand of the sea. (9) And they went up over the breadth of the earth and circled around the camp of the saints, and the beloved city. And fire came down from God out of Heaven and devoured them. (10) And the Devil who deceived them was cast into the Lake of Fire and Brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet were . And he will be tormented day and night forever and ever. (11) And I saw a great white throne, and Him sitting on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. And a place was not found for them. (12) And I saw the dead, the small and the great, stand before God. And books were opened, and another book was opened, which is the Book of Life. And the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. (13) And the sea gave up the dead in it. And death and hell delivered up the dead in them. And each one of them was judged according to their works. (14) And death and hell were cast into the Lake of Fire. This is the second death. (15) And if anyone was not found having been written in the Book of Life, he was cast into the Lake of Fire.

Then He will also say to those on the left hand, “Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels” (Matthew 25:41, NKJV)

There is no doubt what happens in the end. He and his demons spend eternity in the Lake of Fire and Brimstone. God has the victory and those of us, who have accepted Christ as our Lord, will share in the victory. Some people erroneously think they would rather rule with satan in hell than rule with the God of Love in Heaven. But satan rules nowhere! He is king of nothing! Eternity in hell is not a drunken, bacchanalian orgy of fun. It's an eternity of suffering, pain, misery that we cannot even begin to understand. God provided a way for you to be saved. You don't have to go to hell. He loves you and He created you to be saved!



We have filled out the background. So lets get back to the question of why did God create us? I hope you've gotten a few clues from the background I've provided. I know I have.

“Worthy are you, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they existed and were created.” (Revelation 4:11, English Standard Version)

For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. (Colossians 1:16, ESV)

God is a creative Being, and it gives Him pleasure to create. God is a personal Being, and it gives Him pleasure to have other beings He can have a genuine relationship with. WE were not made to be automatons, robots, beings forced to love and serve God. We were created with a free will so we could choose to love Him; choose to communicate with Him; choose to spend time with Him; choose to learn from Him; choose to serve and obey Him. We were made with a built in need for God so we are not fulfilled until we are one with Him. We will never be complete, at rest, satisfied away from Him although we have the choice to choose Him or not.


God has no need for us but we have a need for Him and He is willing to fulfill those needs. God has no unmet need. He is sufficient within Himself. He provided a way for us. He did for us what we could not do for ourselves. His Son, Jesus, became the bridge from God to us so that we could be in communion with our Creator and Father. God did not create us as gods, we are not equal to Him.

To you it was shown, that you might know that the Lord is God; there is no other besides him. (Deuteronomy 4:35, ESV)

The God who made the world and everything in it … is not served by human hands, as if he needed anything (Acts 17:24-25)


But we are the pinnacle of His Creation. We were created in His Image. Just as God is in three persons, blessed Trinity, Father, Son, Holy Spirit, we have 3 parts to our being: physical (body), emotional/mental (soul), and spiritual (spirit).

Let us make man in our own image (Genesis 1:26)

Yet You have made him (mankind) a little lower than the heavenly beings and crowned him with glory and honor. (Psalm 8:5, ESV)

We must recognize the character and attributes of God. God is a God of love. God loved us before He even created us. Out of love flows love and creativity. Love must be demonstrated, showering it upon the object of that love. And, praise God, that is you and me!!!! He desired reciprocal love, so He created us. Man was given the ability to respond to God's love (or reject it). God created us for His pleasure. God did not keep His life and love to Himself, He shared it. He breathed into man the breath of life, and man became a living soul. God created humanity because “He is love”.

Behold what manner of love the Father has given us, that we should be called children of God. Therefore the world does not know us, because it did not know Him. (1 John 3:1, MKJV)

I have loved you with an everlasting love (Jeremiah 31:3)

You are my friends if you do what I command you. No longer do I call you servants, for the servant does not know what his master is doing; but I have called you friends, for all that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you.(John 15:14-15, ESV)

O Lord, You are worthy to receive glory and honor and power, because You created all things, and for Your will they are and were created. (Rev 4:11, MKJV)

And the end result is that our relationship with this God of love leads us to glorify and praise Him. When we accept His love, we begin to love Him back. It begins a cycle of love which I call communion. The more He loves me, the more I love Him, the more I respond to His love. God created us to glorify Him and to enjoy Him forever. And one way to show our love and to glorify Him is to serve Him, obey Him, to do good works. Just as He does good to us, we should do good to others.

Everyone who is called by my name, whom I created for my glory, whom I formed and made.(Isaiah 43:7)

Friday, July 18, 2014

The Tabernacle - Part I



The Tabernacle

Exodus 25:9 According to all that I show you, the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments of it, even so you shall make it.

The Tabernacle of God was a mobile place of worship and meeting place with God.
Jer 17:12 A glorious high throne from the beginning is the place of our sanctuary.
The Tabernacle was to be a house of Peace so there is no iron in it's making (a military metal). The Tabernacle was a sign of God's Presence, protection and guidance. It is His resting place with His people. Where He went, they would go. Where He stopped, they would stop. It was a palace for their King (God was their King and Leader) and a place of worship for their God. It was the highest proof of God's grace and mercy towards the Israelites. It was the place where the people could come to make their petitions and from where God issued His responses and commands.

Let's look at the Tabernacle in more detail. The Tabernacle was mobile so it was a tent with curtain walls around the Outer Court.














Exodus 26:1,2 And you shall make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twined bleached linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet. You shall make them with cherubs, of the work of a cunning workman. The length of one curtain shall be twenty-eight cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits. And every one of the curtains shall have one measure.

The Tabernacle is measured in cubits which is the measure from the elbow to the tips of the fingers or the measure from the elbow to the root of the hand. Therefore we can't be exact on the measurements. Let's start with the curtains of the Outer Court. They were 7 1/2 - 8 1/2 ft high. The curtain fence covered a rectangle that was 150-175 ft long by 75-87 1/2 ft long. This curtain fence was held up by poles, or pillars, made of acacia (or shittim) wood which was a wood that did not rot. Rather it got harder as it aged. The pillars of support were outfitted with sockets of bronze and caps of pure silver. Wood always symbolizes humanity. Righteous humanity is where God rests on earth today. And we are only righteous through Jesus Christ. We are now the temples of the Holy Spirit.

The curtains were to obscure the Tabernacle from general view and protect it from common entrance. God arranged for one entrance, through a gate on the East side of the compound. Those who came upon the encampment of Israel in the Wilderness would have seen the white Tabernacle curtains in the center of the camp. They would have stood out against the drab colors of sand and the dark colors of the tents of the people. It represented holiness to all who saw it. It was impossible to see inside the Tabernacle from the camp outside: the white linen curtains made a separation between the outside world and the beauty in the Tabernacle. The Gospel of Salvation should shine as a light to the world. But there is separation between the world and the beauty of a relationship with God. Our sins separate us from God. The only way to enter into the presence of God is to go through the prescribed gate, Jesus Christ. We cannot enter any way we choose. All religions DO NOT lead to the same God and salvation. Only belief in Jesus Christ leads to God and salvation. Only Jesus can forgive us of our sins and lead us to a relationship with our Father God. For the unholy, the curtains excluded them from relationship with God. For those who enter through the prescribed gate (salvation through Jesus Christ), the curtains represent protection, shelter, a shield, a defense and glory.

The curtains were made of white, blue, scarlet and purple linen with figures called cherubim worked in the design. From the outside the curtains were white and from the inside you had the colors and cherubim. The colors are white for purity, blue for heavenly or deity, purple for royalty and scarlet for humanity (the blood of Christ). To get the purple color, the Hebrews mixed blue and scarlet together. (Christ is perfect God and genuine man.) The four colors are like the four gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) that are woven together to present a complete picture of Jesus. The cherubim are angelic beings that represent the righteous government of God, and are the executers of God's righteous judgement. (Ezekiel 1: 5-10)

The curtains had loops all down the sides and they were hooked together with golden clasps. There was not to be any pulling apart so people could enter just any where. There was only one entrance and that was the gate on the East side. Just as there is no way to salvation except through Jesus Christ. God provided one way to salvation and it's through Jesus Christ.

John 14:6 Jesus said to him, I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life; no one comes to the Father but by Me.

The curtains enclosed a courtyard and the Tabernacle proper. The courtyard is also known as the Tent of the Congregation. The courtyard had only one entrance called the East gate. It was about 30 ft long, beautiful and inviting. Made of blue, purple, scarlet.

“I am the gate; whoever enters through me will be saved.” (John 10:9)

All Jewish worshippers could enter the Outer Court to worship if they brought a sacrifice to atone for their sins and it was their appointed place of assembly. Jesus is accessible to all who seek Him. The Outer Court was open to the sun and had natural light. The flooring was the sand of the desert. Christ is "a Root out of a dry ground" (Isa. 53:2, referring to Jesus being born a Jew). But although the floor of the Court was the sand of the wilderness, yet it was a sacred enclosure, holy ground. Christ was a human man born a Jew, but He was also God and born of God. He was God-man. Jesus is our sacrifice for our sins. He is our atonement for our sins. All are welcome and invited to enter but they must enter through faith in Jesus Christ. With the sacrifice of Jesus Christ to open the door, none are turned away.


Read my other posts on The Tabernacle.

The Tabernacle - Part II

The Tabernacle
In the prior 2 devotions I studied the Tabernacle enclosure and the Brazen Altar and the Brazen Laver. (See blog entries below.) We are now ready to look at the Tabernacle proper or the Tent. This Tent was only of two rooms.

I am only pulling out the verses that I will be referring to in order to keep this blog entry short. It would be good to read all of Exodus 26.

Exodus 26:1 And you shall make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twined bleached linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet. You shall make them with cherubs, of the work of a cunning workman.

Exodus 26:7 And you shall make curtains of goats' hair to be a tent over the tabernacle. You shall make eleven curtains.

Exodus 26:14 And you shall make a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering above of dugong skins.

Exodus 26:15 And you shall make boards for the tabernacle of acacia-wood standing up.

Exodus 26:18 And you shall make the boards for the tabernacle, twenty boards on the south side southward.

Exodus 26:20 And for the second side of the tabernacle on the north side shall be twenty boards,

Exodus 26:22-24 And for the sides of the tabernacle westward you shall make six boards. And you shall make two boards for the corners of the tabernacle in the sides. And they shall be coupled together beneath, and they shall be coupled together above the head of it to one ring. So it shall be for them both. They shall be for the two corners.

Exodus 26:25-30 And there shall be eight boards, and their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets, two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board. And you shall make bars of acacia-wood, five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle; and five bars for the side of the tabernacle, for the two sides westward. And the middle bar in the midst of the boards shall reach from end to end. And you shall overlay the boards with gold, and you shall make their rings of gold, housings for the bars. And you shall overlay the bars with gold. And you shall rear up the tabernacle according to the pattern of it which was shown you in the mountain.

The framework or trellis for the tent of the Tabernacle was to be made of acacia (or shittim) wood. I have described this wood previously and that wood always represented humanity while gold represents deity. Jesus Christ is the support and He was a son of man and the Son of God.

The height of these boards were about 10 cubits or 15 feet. Twenty boards made up one of the long sides of the Tabernacle making it about 45 ft long. The short ends of the Tabernacle were made up of would have been about 15 feet with the rear wall being made of 8 boards. These gold overlaid boards were laid in sockets of silver on the bottom. They were clasped together with 96 sockets of silver and gold tenons. There were also 5 long horizontal bars slipped in gold rings to stabilize the Tabernacle.

Over the Tabernacle were placed the tent curtains. There were 4 layers of curtains. The first layer which would have been seen from the inside was made up of woven linen in blue, purple, and scarlet threads with the designs of cherubim. We have discussed before that the cherubim are angelic beings that represent God's righteous judgement and government and they are His enforcers. We also discussed the symbolism of the colors with blue signifying the heavenly or deity, purple represents royalty and scarlet represents humanity because it is the color of blood. Scarlet is also the color of glory! The purity of white, the deity of blue, the royalty of purple and the humanity and glory of scarlet represent Jesus Christ.

There were 10 of these linen curtains. These curtains were coupled together in fives, giving a total length of forty-two feet and a width of sixty feet, which would not only reach across the Tabernacle, which was fifteen feet in width, but would overlap its sides. The two sets of five white curtains were linked together by fifty loops of blue on each curtain, which were fastened with fifty clasps of gold, to make one solid piece. The loops and clasps show that the love and obedience of Christ are what hold it all together. If Jesus had not loved us and loved His Father enough to sacrifice Himself for us...If Jesus had not been obedient to His Father, EVEN UNTO DEATH...we would have been forever lost.

When the Priests entered the Tabernacle tent and looked up, they would see this magnificent covering. They would be reminded of God's glory, His mercy, His righteousness.

The further outward you moved from God's Presence, the less valuable the materials were. So the next curtain was made of 11 curtains of goat's hair looped together with bronze clasps. The covering of goats hair spoke of Jesus Christ and His sacrifice as in the scapegoat that carried away the sins of the nation in the wilderness.

Scape Goat
Leviticus 16:7-10 And he shall take the two he-goats and present them before Jehovah at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And Aaron shall cast lots on the two he-goats; one lot for Jehovah and the other lot for a complete removal. And Aaron shall bring the goat on which Jehovah's lot fell, and offer it for a sin offering. But the goat on which the lot fell to be the complete removal shall be presented alive before Jehovah, to make an atonement with him, to let him go for a complete removal into the wilderness.

Leviticus 16:15 Then he shall kill the goat of the sin offering that is for the people, and bring its blood inside the veil. And he shall do with that blood as he did with the blood of the young bull, and sprinkle it on the mercy-seat and before the mercy-seat.

Leviticus:20-22 And when he has made an end of reconciling the sanctuary and the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, he shall bring the live goat. And Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the sins of the sons of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them on the head of the goat, and shall send away by the hand of a chosen man into the wilderness. And the goat shall bear on him all their sins to a land in which no one lives. And he shall let the goat go in the wilderness.


Next came the first water tight covering which was red dyed ram skins. Rams were used for sacrifice, as in the account with Abraham and Isaac, and the red always represents blood for the atonement. For example:

Leviticus 5:15 If a soul commits a trespass and sins through ignorance in the holy things of Jehovah, then he shall bring for his trespass to Jehovah a ram without blemish out of the flock, together with an amount set by you, by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass offering.

And, finally, the covering of badger (or dugong) skins. The Hebrew word for badger skins 'tachash' may refer to a badger or a Dugong or Sea Cow or Porpoise. These are aquatic mammals. Their skin would have been waterproof. Once again, in the tabernacle coverings there was a progression from the more beautiful to the less attractive. The final cover of skins was far from beautiful. You can't help but imagine what someone must have thought to see this unattractive tent as the focal point for the worship of Yahweh. But these skins prove that Jesus had no special looks to attract others. Jesus was a normal Israelite man with nothing especially attractive about Him that would make us think he was the King of kings. He was humble in character.

Isa 53:2-3 "For He shall grow up before Him as a tender plant, and as a root out of dry ground. He has no form or comeliness; and when we see Him, there is no beauty that we should desire Him. He is despised and rejected by men, a Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. And we hid, as it were, our faces from Him; he was despised, and we did not esteem Him."

From the outside, Jesus might not have looked like a King, but the more you learn about Him, the more beautiful He is. To those who are standing on the outside looking in...little do they realize how precious our Savior is, how beautiful He is to us, who are saved! In fact, when He was crucified He was described as having a face so marred by brutality that He was barely recognizable as a man and yet, it was by that precious blood we are saved! It is by His love and His obedience that we are covered and brought safely into the presence of God.


Read my other posts on The Tabernacle.

Tabernacle - Outer Court

Outer Court of the Tabernacle

Yesterday we studied about the Tabernacle's Outer Court curtains, pillars and gate. What was in the compound? There were two items in the Outer Court before the Priests went into the Tabernacle proper, the tent of worship.

(If you will read the entry below this one, you will see the beginning of this study.)

As you came in through the gate, you were in the Outer Court. This Outer Court only had the natural light for lighting. The first thing you would encounter was the Brazen Altar.








The Brazen Altar


Exodus 27:1-8 And you shall make an altar of acacia-wood, five cubits long and five cubits broad. The altar shall be square. And the height of it shall be three cubits. And you shall make the horns of it upon the four corners of it. Its horns shall be of the same, and you shall overlay it with bronze. And you shall make its pans to receive its ashes, and its shovels, and its basins, and its flesh-hooks, and its fire-pans. All the vessels of it you shall make of bronze. And you shall make for it a grating, a network of bronze. And upon the net you shall make four bronze rings in the four corners of it. And you shall put it under the ledge of the altar beneath, so that the net may be even to the midst of the altar. And you shall make staves for the altar, staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with bronze. And the staves shall be put into the rings, and the staves shall be upon the two sides of the altar, to carry it. You shall make it hollow with boards; as it was shown you in the mountain, so shall they make it.




The largest piece of equipment, furniture, in the Tabernacle is the Brazen Altar and was also known as the Altar of Burnt Offering. It was made of acacia (or shittim) wood overlaid with bronze (or brass). It had 4 horns on the corners. It had a grate of bronze set beneath the rim of the altar. It had rings on it and poles were used to pick it up and move it. A holy fire was kept burning in it at all times. God supernaturally lit the fire the first time and it was never to go out.


Leviticus 9:22-24 And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people, and blessed them, and came down from offering the sin offering and the burnt offering and peace offerings. And Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of the congregation, and came out and blessed the people. And the glory of Jehovah appeared to all the people. And there came a fire out from before Jehovah, and burned up the burnt offering and the fat on the altar. And all the people saw and shouted and fell on their faces.


It was to this altar that an Israelite would come with his chosen sacrifice. The Priest would take the sacrifice to the altar and sacrifice it.


The wood symbolizes humanity. The bronze (or brass) symbolizes judgement. The wood overlaid with brass symbolizes that our sin-bearer (Jesus Christ) can endure God's righteous judgement against sin. The brass (or bronze) on the altar protected it from the heat of the fire and prevented it from being burnt up. It was at the altar that the price was paid for sin.


Rom 6:23 For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.


Jesus was the sinless human who was sacrificed for our sins. He is the righteous God of judgement. Christ passed through the fires of God’s judgement without being consumed. He saves, because He is able to endure. It is at the altar that God's hatred for sin is revealed in judgement. But it is here that God's mercy is shown because He provided His very Son to take righteous judgement on our behalf.


As I've said before, Jesus is God man. You see, Jesus had to be a human in order to pay God for the human acts of sin that had separated us from God. And, yet, there will never be a human that is not born sinless. So Jesus also had to be God in order to be sinless. He was human from Mary's side. His mother was a human being. He was God from God's side. God conceived Jesus in Mary's womb. Only a human could pay for sin because it was a human, Adam and Eve, who had sinned to start with and passed down the sin in every human being born afterwards. Only God could be born and live a sinless life. That is why He is called the Son of God and the Son of Man.


Note this description of Jesus in Revelation,
Rev 1:13-18 And having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands. And in the midst of the seven lampstands I saw One like the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the feet, and tied around the breast with a golden band. His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow. And His eyes were like a flame of fire. And His feet were like burnished brass having been fired in a furnace. And His voice was like the sound of many waters. And He had seven stars in His right hand, and out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword. And His face was like the sun shining in its strength. And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. And He laid His right hand upon me, saying to me, Do not fear, I am the First and the Last, and the Living One, and I became dead, and behold, I am alive for ever and ever, Amen. And I have the keys of hell and of death.


The Priest walked up an incline with the sacrifice to the edge of the altar and would tie the sacrifice to the horns where it would be sacrificed. Horns always represented strength.


Psa 118:27 God is Jehovah, who gives light to us. Tie the sacrifice with cords to the horns of the altar.


Christ did not have to be tied down or forced to be our sacrifice. He voluntarily submitted Himself to be sacrificed on our behalf. At any time He could have called down an army of angels to save Himself but He didn't. He went as a lamb to slaughter. He gave His life for us and to pay for our sins, to make atonement, to pay the price, to redeem us, to recieve the judgement upon Himself.


1 Peter 2:21-24 For you were not called to this? For Christ also suffered on our behalf, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps, He who did no sin, nor was guile found in His mouth, who when He was reviled did not revile in return. When He suffered, He did not threaten, but gave Himself up to Him who judges righteously. He Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree, that dying to sins, we might live to righteousness; by whose stripes you were healed.






















The Laver
The Laver was another piece of the Tabernacle furniture. It was a round bronze (or brass) basin.


Exodus 30:17-21 And Jehovah spoke to Moses, saying, You shall also make a laver of bronze and its foot also of bronze, for washing. And you shall put it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar. And you shall put water in it, for Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet there. When they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water so that they do not die. Or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn an offering made by fire to Jehovah, they shall wash their hands and their feet, so that they do not die. And it shall be a statute forever to them, to him and to his seed throughout their generations.


Exodus 38:8 And he made the laver of bronze, and its base bronze, out of the mirrors of serving women who assembled at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.


The Lord directed Moses to use the mirrors that women gave him to make the Laver. Back in those days they didn't have the glass mirrors of today. They had made mirrors of highly polished metal. These were made of bronze (or brass). A laver is a large basin that was used for washing. It was highly polished with a mirror like finish. As the priest looked into the laver he saw himself and then was told to wash himself. He ceremonially washed his hands and his feet.


Whereas the Brazen Altar was indicative of the fire of judgement, the Laver was indicative of the washing by water. Only the priests could use this basin. Water is a symbol of washing, refreshing, cleansing, life (for without water there is no life). At the brazen altar, sins were dealt with and now, the laver is for priestly purification, cleansing. The Laver symbolizes the need of cleansing from the guilt of sin in everyday life even after we are saved by Christ's sacrifice. We are saved but we are still human beings with a persistent evil human nature. So we are saved but we still sin. We have a need to approach the laver, to look at our spiritual selves and to wash once again. What is our mirror? What shows us our sin? What convicts us of our sin? The Bible.


Ephesians 5:25-27 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself for it, that He might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the Word, that He might present it to Himself as the glorious church, without spot or wrinkle or any such things, but that it should be holy and without blemish.


Psalm 119:9 With what shall a young man cleanse his way? By taking heed according to Your Word.


John 3:5 Jesus answered, Truly, truly, I say to you, Unless a man is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.


Hebrews 4:12 For the Word of God is living and powerful and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing apart of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.


James 1:22-25 But become doers of the Word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves. For if anyone is a hearer of the Word and not a doer, he is like a man studying his natural face in a mirror. For he studied himself and went his way, and immediately he forgot what he was like. But whoever looks into the perfect Law of liberty and continues in it, he is not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work. This one shall be blessed in his doing.


When we read the Bible, the Word of God, we are naturally convicted of our sins. We realize that we are sinners and that we need cleansing. The Word is like a mirror of our souls. If you have read the Picture of Dorian Grey you will remember that Dorian Grey never aged or looked dissipated. Rather, his portrait showed the passage of time. In fact, as he practised more and more wickedness, he remained young and vital and yet his portrait grew hideous. It became so hideous, full of horror, that he had it locked in an upstairs room and kept covered. He could barely stand to look at it because it mirrored his soul. He visually saw his own vileness, wickedness, sinfulness. Finally he could stand it no longer. It's a wonderful book. But, back to the Laver. It symbolizes the Word of God that mirrors the condition of our soul. We see our true image in it's mirrored surface. We see our need of cleansing. We should approach the Laver daily. We should daily read the Word and take a look at the condition of our soul. If we find sin then we should wash ourselves clean with the blood of Christ.


Remember that Christ died for us to save us from our sins and to present us righteous and clean before God. In order for us to approach God, we must be saved (the Brazen Altar) and we must continually wash ourselves in the Laver. The sacrifice at the Brazen Altar was done FOR us but the washing in the Laver is done BY us. In order to have communion or fellowship with God we must be free of offense. We can go to the Laver and look carefully at ourselves to see if there by any sin (go to the Bible and read it with yourself in mind and see if it applies to you) and then humbly ask Jesus to wash you once again. We have no need for a total washing as that was done at the Brazen Altar, but specific washing by our Priest and Servant, Jesus. Remember the story of the foot washing?


John 13:4-15 He rose up from supper and laid aside His garments. And He took a towel and girded Himself. After that He poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel with which He was girded. Then He came to Simon Peter. And Peter said to Him, Lord, do You wash my feet? Jesus answered and said to him, You do not know what I do now, but you shall know hereafter. Peter said to Him, You shall never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, Unless I wash you, you have no part with Me. Simon Peter said to Him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and head. Jesus said to him, He who is bathed has no need except to wash his feet, but is clean every whit. And you are clean, but not all. For He knew who would betray Him. Therefore He said, You are not all clean. So after He had washed their feet and had taken His garments and had reclined again, He said to them, Do you know what I have done to you? You call Me the Teacher, and Lord, and you say well, for I AM. If then I, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you.


Jesus is our gate to a relationship with God, He is our protection, He is our Tabernacle, He is our Sacrifice and our High Priest, He is the furniture of the Tabernacle. Jesus is everything! He washes away failures in our actions and failures in our walk (hands and feet).


Hebrews 10:19-22 Therefore, brothers, having boldness to enter into the Holy of Holies by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which He has consecrated for us through the veil, that is to say, His flesh; and having a High Priest over the house of God, let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience and our bodies having been washed with pure water.


We will go inside the Tabernacle proper in my next devotion.


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